- Created by: YasirYY
- Created on: 27-08-18 16:42
The Northern Rebellion
· Came after imprisonment of Mary Stuart, withC atholic interest lead by Earl of Westmorland and Northumberland with the plan of marrying Mary to Duke of Norfolk,
· The rebels took the symbol of five wounds of Christ (clear Catholic symbol like that of Pilgrimage of Grace).
· The reason for rebellion was a response to the religious change, the North was Catholic and northern earls wanted return to Catholicism, felt marginalised by religious reform, e.g. Arch Bishop of Durham was harsh in his methods galvanising more Catholics.
· Was also in response to Northern Earls being pushed out of their traditional role at Court in Comparison to the Protestants in power (factionalism).
· Was a threat as: Rebels seized Durham on 14th November and held Mass in the Cathedral a clear rallying call to Catholics as Mass was illegal under Royal injunctions and Act of Uniformity, they also marched on York besieging Crown’s stronghold on Bernard Castle.
· Not a threat as Lacked organisation and leadership whether to march to the south or not, did not have the expected foreign support from either Spain or Scotland. It was Also geographically isolated in Durham with 4,600 troops and gained little support from Catholics can be seen by how quickly rebellion in Cumberland was crushed by Lord Anson who saw more as an attack on a legitimate Monarch rather than a Catholic resistance. Government acted decisively resulting in the mass execution of rebels.
The Ridolfi Plot
· After the Papal Bull in 1570, excommunicating Elizabeth from Catholic Church and encouraging the removal of her as Monarch
· The Ridolfi plot was a plot in 1571 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
· The plot was hatched and planned by Roberto Ridolfi, an international banker who was able to travel between Brussels, Rome and Madrid to gather support without attracting too much suspicion.
· The plan was to have the Duke of Alba invade from the Netherlands with 10,000 men, foment a rebellion of the northern English nobility, murder Elizabeth, and marry Mary to Duke of Norfolk. Ridolfi optimistically estimated half of all English peers were Catholic and could muster more than 39,000 men.
· Was a threat: Involved Philip II of Spain (through his ambassador De Spes), written approval from Pope and involved Duke of Norfolk. Threat of invasion of 10,000 men and potential support of English Catholics with the Papal Bull (also coincides with worsening foreign policy).
· Not a threat as plot was found out by John Hawkins who told the queen and the Grand Duke of Tuscany. De Spes was removed as ambassador and Duke of Norfolk executed. Puritans put pressure on Elizabeth to execute Mary.
Throckmorton and Babington Plots
· Francis Throckmorton planned for Duke of Guise to invade England and instate Mary Stuart as Queen and restore Catholicism.
· Support from Spain and the Pope
· Threat as Foreign support of both France and Spain and Pope. Proof of conspirators within government from Throckmorton and once again shows Mary Queen of Scots as a figure head.
· Not a threat as Throckmorton executed after being found out. Elizabeth cracked down on Catholics with 11,000 imprisoned and Law against sheltering Catholic priests in 1585 instituted.
· Babington plot Babington English Catholic with links to France, wrote to Mary QOS, had support of Phillip Pope and Duke of Guise promising to invade with 60,000 troops.
· Spymaster Walsingham intercepted the letters and was able to implicate Mary Queen of Scots for wanting to remove Elizabeth and restore Catholicism. Babington and Mary Queen of Scots executed and response from Elizabeth was 300 recusants in North London alone and 31 priests executed.
Ends Mary Queen of Scots as a figurehead but once again dangerous showing potential isolation England face with Spain France and Pope united against it
· Robert Earl of Essex was Earl Marshall and had monopoly of sweet wine, was brash and wanted to fight.
· Elizabeth sent him to Ireland to deal with O’Neil Earl of Tyrone’s rebellion, but he negotiated a truce with Tyrone and went back to England without the Queen’s permission.
· Because of this was banished from court, placed under house arrest and lost title Master of Ordinance.
· Essex faced the collapse of factional support and so desperately rallied allies to take over government and to destroy the Cecil faction.
· Was a threat: Essex marched on the city hoping to rally support and even attempted contacting James VI. Ultimately shows the breakdown of control by Elizabeth as Essex defied orders and attempted to assert his own power. Supported by the context as, Leicester had died recently, Walsingham 1590, Sir Christopher Hatton 1591, Burghley 1599 and Duke of Anjou 1594 showing the vulnerability of Elizabeth.
Not a Threat as: When Elizabeth heard of the plot by the privy council she was prepared to listen to his complaints, showing Elizabeth was not worried about this. Essex was only able to garner few supporters (perhaps in hundreds), no foreign support and then he retreated into his house and ended up executed, rather than showing lack of control by Elizabeth it shows the brash politically immature nature of Essex who tried to use force to remove factional rival
Irish Rebellions 1 (Hugh O'Neil, Earl of Tyrone)
· Elizabeth believed Ireland should be subjected to policy of Englishness in both religious and secular matters despite Ireland being a Catholic population with different customs to England.
· Elizabeth proclaimed Supreme Governor of the Church of Ireland in 1560- but lacked the power to impose Protestantism (most Tudor control within area of Ireland called the Pale).
· Rebellions broke out in the South against English rule in 1569-73 and 1579-82 that were linked with Spanish incursions into the country, the English response was brutal.
· Earl of Tyrone Hugh O’Neil. Rose up in rebellion in 1595 with Spanish attempting to exploit the situation in the Armada 1596. Rebels won at the Battle of Yellow Ford in August 1598 and were in control of much of Ireland beyond the Pale
· Elizabeth sent Earl of Essex to Ireland as Lord Lieutenant in 1599 who mad a truce with Tyrone and after the Truce expired Tyrone moved near Kinsale (coast) hoping to link with Spanish troops.
· However, Elizabeth sent new leadership, Lord Mountjoy and Sir George Carew.
· 3000 Spanish troops arrived 1601 but there was English triumph with Tyrone retreating to Ulster before eventually negotiating a peace with Mountjoy in 1603.
Irish Rebellions 2, where they are a threat?
· Threat as Irish rebellions undermined control and was taken advantage of by Spain, with Spain sending troops who landed in Ireland. Earl of Tyrone controlled most of Ireland lasting a sustained time (officially ending couple of days after Elizabeth died). It cost about £2 million to suppress the revolt; £1.25 million of it over the period 1599-1603.
· Not a threat Rebellion was beaten with Ireland having no realistic goal of invading England, Spanish troops more a nuisance than a legitimate threat. Ireland has always been uncooperative to English rule, Elizabeth’s actions not necessarily new, with Henry VII accepting Chieftains and Henry VIII attempting plantations.