Rebellions and Foreign Policy of Henry VII

1486 LAMBERT SIMNEL REBELLION

  • Dynastic 
  • Simnel pretends to be Earl of Warwick - currently in the Tower
  • Sim crowned King of Ireland in Dublin
  • Margaret of Burgundy sends 2,000 German troops to support Sim
  • Earl of Lincoln fails to rally Irish forces for invasion - ENGLAND EXHAUSTED BY CIVIL WAR
  • HVII forced into battle - 12,000 royal forces VS 8,000 Lincoln rebels
  • Lincoln killed in battle - Sim pardoned + sent to work in royal kitchens

HVII SUCCESSFULLY PROVED POWER + AUTHORITY 

FOREIGN ASSISSTANCE + YORKIST OPPOSITION = SIGNIFICANT THREAT

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1488 - 1492 BRITTANY CRISIS

  • French attempt to invade Brittany 
  • Difficult situation for HVII - action required to maintain respect w/in Europe + owed favour to both Brittany and France
  • HVII lacked funds for war + did not want to anger France
  • Negotiations opened BUT HVII failed to secretly send troops to Brittany
  • Allied w/ Brittany 1589 + France sheltered Warbeck at court in retaliation (displeasure)
  • HVIII gambled 12,000 troops hoping France did not want war - PAID OFF (French too preoccupied w/ Italian Wars)
  • 1592 Treaty of Etaples secured annual French Pension until HVII death + France dropped alliances w/ English enemies

COST OF WAR GREATLY OUTWEIGHTED ANY MONEY PAID BACK BY PENSION (DESPITE SIGNIFICANCE)

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1489 YORKSHIRE REBELLION

  • Rebellion against taxes for Brittany Crisis - France too far away to justify North paying the tax
  • Parliament granted £100,000 while taxes only raised £27,000
  • Earl of Northumberland murdered by rebels as royal messenger
  • Crucial for HVII to maintain English foothold in France
  • Earl of Surrey sent to massacre rebel forces - rebel leaders hanged

ONLY SUCCESSFUL REBELLION - REBELS NOT FORCED TO PAY TAX

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1489 TREATY OF MEDINA DEL CAMPO

  • Anglo-Spanish alliance/promise to consult each other prior to agreements w/ France
  • Equal trading rights created between English + Spanish merchants
  • Arranged marriage between Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon

ALLIANCE LASTED UNTIL REIGN OF ELIZABETH I

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(PT.I) 1491 - 1499 PERKIN WARBECK REBELLION

  • Dynastic
  • Warbeck pretended to be a dead Yorkist prince (from the Tower)
  • Initially warmly welcomed by France - forced to leave by Treaty of Etaples
  • Burgundy claims Warbeck as a long lost nephew - trade embargo forces Burgundy to give up W
  • HRE briefly supposrts W - distracted by Italian Wars
  • W attempts Kent invasion + easily put down

HVII INFORMED OF WILLIAM STANLEY INVOLVEMENT W/ W - 1595 STANELY EXECUTED

= HUGE BLOW FOR HVII

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(PT.II) 1491 - 1499 PERKIN WARBECK REBELLION

  • W welcomed in Scotland + married cousin of James IV
  • 1497 W attempts Scottish invasion - fails miserably - TRIGGERS CORNISH REBELLION
  • HVII and JIV make peace/marriage arrangement + W forced to flee
  • W attempts Exeter rebellion before giving up
  • W pardoned + sheltered in court
  • W makes three escape attempts + imprisoned in the Tower
  • 1499 W executed for conspiring w/ Earl of Warwick

HVII LUCKY - ISSUES IN EUROPE PREVENTED W FROM MAINTIANING SIGNIFICANT FOREIGN SUPPORT FOR HIS CLAIM

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1492 TREATY OF ETAPLES

  • HVII promise to withdraw troops from France 
  • Creation of annual FRENCH PENSION
  • French paid HVII £5,000 annually until death of HVII
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1494 - 1509 ITALIAN WARS

  • French invasion of Italian Peninsula = huge threat to European powers
  • England excluded from HRE+Spanish anti-French alliance
  • English neutrality guarenteed protection 
  • HVII ended Warbeck campaign by manoeuvring  outisde of European politics
  • Allowed HVII to deal w/ internal issues + not waste money on foreign policy
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1496 INTERCURSUS MAGNUS

  • Trading agreement w/ Burgundy allowing England to trade with the whole country (except Flanders)
  • Solid basis for trade agreement from 1499

INTERCURSUS MALUS = TEMPORARY EXTORTION OF PHILIP OF BURGUNDY DURING SUCCESSION CRISIS

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1497 TRUCE OF AYTON

  • Improved Anglo-Scottish relationship after failed Warbeck invasion
  • 1502 developed into the Treaty of Perpetual Peace
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1497 CORNISH REBELLION

  • Rebellion against taxes for war against Scotland (triggered by Warbeck)
  • War had a significant impact on trade + economic decline 
  • 15,000 rebels marched from Cornwall to London
  • Rebellion cruched on the outskirts of London w/ 1,000 rebels killed - leader executed for treason

NOBILITY FAILED TO STOP REBELS = HUGELY CONCERNING LACK OF SUPPORT FOR HVII + ROYAL AUTHOIRTY

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1501 - 1506 EDMUND DE LA POLE ISSUE

  • de la Pole = genuine claimant to the throne + heir before Tudor victory in the War of the Roses
  • 1501 de la Pole fled to HRE to establish Yorkist claim = significant threat after 1502 death of Prince Arthur
  • Diplomatic manoeuvres during the Succession Crisis allowed HVII to gain possession of de la Pole
  • Remained imprisoned in the Tower until executed by HVIII in 1513

NOT DYNASTIC BUT A SIGNIFICANT AND LEGITIMATE THREAT TO TUDOR CLAIM + SUCCESSION 

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1504 - 1506 CASTILIAN SUCCESSION CRISIS

  • Death of Isabella of Castile = instability between Castile + Aragon (Spanish kingdoms)
  • Caused self-destruction of anti-French Alliance
  • Ferdinand of Aragon wanted to unite Spain - Philip of Burgundy wanted Castile as part of HRE
  • HVII forced between an alliance with Spanish OR Burgundy 
  • Burgundy alliance = pacify Yorkists + gain de la Pole + organise a marriage alliance for HVIII
  • Caused bad relations w/ Spain (retaliated w/ French marriage alliance)
  • 1506 Philip dies + Ferdinand regains Castile
  • HVII re-established neutrality to gain custody of de la Pole
  • Ferdinand = self-declared king of united Spain = huge threat to all of Europe
  • HVII forced into multiple alliances w/ France + Netherlands to isolate Spain
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1508 LEAGUE OF CAMBRIA

  • Union of all European countries against Venice in renewed Italian Wars
  • All marriage alliances prohibited
  • English neutrality = isolation from European politics (again) 
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