REASONS FOR THE FIVE YEAR PLANS

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  • Created by: Rupi
  • Created on: 23-03-13 14:33

REASONS FOR THE FIVE YEAR PLANS

IDELOGICAL CAUSES

  • Socalism is only possible in a highly advanced nation
  • Wanted to make a big gap between Russia and advanced capitailist countries
  • Red specialists who were communists that educated the working class

POLITICAL CAUSES

  • Keen to build a reputation thay surpassed Lenins
  • Stalin Russia was just begining
  • russia wouldn't be able to defend itself against capitalist nations in the event of war, they would need to develop their coal,iron and steel industries

ECONOMIC CAUSES

  • Introduced as a response to NEP failure
  • amount of iron,steel and coal produced never exceeded the amunt in the last years of Tsarism
  • NEP was not producing fast enough a new approach was needed
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FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN 1928-1932

  • It was a set of un realistic targets rather than a plan
  • It showed what needed to be achieved but not how to achieve it

PRIORITIES

  • Focus on heavy industry of coal,iron and steel also working on heavy industries would allow peasants to gain skills necessary to work in more sphisticatedindustries eg textiles. 
  • Russia would be able to defend itself against invading countries.

SUCCESSES

  • Production of raw materials increased = Russia was a more dynamic society.
  • Russia economy grew by 14%
  • Iron,coal and steel outperformed any pevious year ( see table for figures)
  • Many peasants moved to cities 
  • Universities were made accessible to people with minimal academic qualifications.
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FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN 1928-1932

FAILURES OF THE FIRST FIVE YEAR PLANS

  • Many of the official targets were never met.
  • Many people who failed to meet the targets were executed,sacked or exiled so many people lied about how much raw materials they produced.
  • Targets only related to quanitity of prodution administration not quality many of the materials that were produced were effectivley useless. 
  • Sunday became another working day
  • Working conditions deteriorated
  • Abolish free market and was replaced by a centerally planned economy.
  • This encouraged the formation of the Black market.
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MAGNITOGORSK

  • RUSSIA'S LARGEST STEEL FACTORY
  • 1929 GERMAN ARCHITECT WOULD CREATE A UNTOPIAN LIKE CITY WHERE THERE WOULD BE CLEAN ACCOMADATION FOR WORKERS,
  • THOUSANDS OF SHOCK WORKERS VOLOUNTEERED TO TAKE PART IN THE PROJECT
  • BUT TO THEIR SURPRISE THEY WERE MET WITH SHED LIKE HUTS TO LIVE IN, NO HEATING NOR SANITATION
  • 40,000 PRISONERS WORKERS AND A HARD CORE OF DEDICATED VOLUNTEERS MIRACULOUSLY TURNED RUSSIAS DESERT INTO A MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CENTERS.
  • THE VISION OF MAGNITORSK WAS TO BUILD A MODERN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY IN WHICH WORKERS LIVED AND WORKED AS PART OF AN IDEAL COMMUNITY.HOWEVER IN REALITY IT WAS CONSTRACTED BY A LARGE FORCE OF SLAVE LABOUR. 
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SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN - 1933

  • Production targets were more realistic, stalin had learnt from his mistakes from the first five year plan. 

PRIORITIES

  • Stalin wanted to increase the standard of living for Russias people. 
  • However this prority had to change in response to German rearment, the priority then changed to heavy industry.However Stalin wanted to focus on new industries such as electricity and chemical processing. 

STAKHANOVITE MOVEMENT-1935

  • Productivity and discipline in facotries were so low that it held back economic growth.
  • A new propagandacampaign was needed.
  • Alexi Stakanov moned 102 tonnes of coal in 6hours. 
  • He became a celebrity
  • They used this to show people work hard and you will be rewarded
  • deliberitly planned.


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SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN - 1933

  • Production targets were more realistic, stalin had learnt from his mistakes from the first five year plan. 

PRIORITIES

  • Stalin wanted to increase the standard of living for Russias people. 
  • However this prority had to change in response to German rearment, the priority then changed to heavy industry.However Stalin wanted to focus on new industries such as electricity and chemical processing. 

STAKHANOVITE MOVEMENT-1935

  • Productivity and discipline in facotries were so low that it held back economic growth.
  • A new propagandacampaign was needed.
  • Alexi Stakanov moned 102 tonnes of coal in 6hours. 
  • He became a celebrity
  • They used this to show people work hard and you will be rewarded
  • deliberitly planned.


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ACHIEVEMENTS AND FAILURES OF THE SECOND FIVE YEAR

ACHIEVEMENTS

  • Production of raw materials continued to expand
  • Output of steel trebled.
  • Moscow Metro were opened in 1935.
  • Moscow-Volga Canal was completed between 1932 and 1937.The Canal allowed large amounts of material to be transported throughout western Russia.
  • 1934 bread rationing ended.
  • Wages of industrial workers increased.
  • Defence spending rose from 4% of total govt. expenditure in 1933 to 17% in 1937

FAILURES

  • Little coordination between the different branches of industry.
  • fear of execution meant that no one was prepared to criticise plan,report errors, or suggest that the targets were unattaiable
  • Shortages of essential items remained a daily reality for Russia's citizens.'Shelia Fitzpatrick argues during the 1930's shopping was a 'survival skill.'
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THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN

  • Was devised to prepare Russia for war with Germany.

REARMAMENT

  • By 1940 a third of govt. investment went to the armed forces, doubling the proportion since 1937
  • Third 5YP initiated a number o\f important innovations in Soviet military technology- 1939 the Gosplan( construction of 9 new aircraft factories).

HEAVY INDUSTRY

  • Formed backbone of the plan, Coal lept from 128 million tonnes in 1937 to 166 milliontonnes in 1940. However production of crude oil only raised marginally from 29 million tonnes 
  •  in 937 to 31 million tonnes in 1940. 

WORKERS DICSIPLNE

  • Internal passports in 1940, restricted the ability of workers to move from job to k=job therefore ensured factories were guarenteed a stable supply of labour. 
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PROBLEMS OF THE THIRD FIVE YEAR PLAN

  • removal and execution of many experienced industrial managers, leading to a return to the planning chaos that had characterised the First Five year plan.
  • Moderated such as Kirov had been able to offer creative solutions which led to the improvedproductivity and helped consolodate the achievements of the First 5YP. 
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