Reasons for the Communist victory in the Russian Civil War

Resons for the Communist victory in the Russian Civil War 1918. 

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  • Created by: grace
  • Created on: 11-12-12 17:06

White weaknesses

  • lacked unified command structre and strategy
  • spread out over large geographical areas
  • often failed to co-ordinate attacks
  • lacked support from many Russians (seen as former Tsarists or as foreign invaders)
  • failed to work effectively with the Greens (The Green's had peasant spport and had a peasant army)
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Red Military strengths

  • Trotsky used officers who had fought for the Tsar (which meant the Red's had more experienced leaders)
  • Trotsky's Red Army controlled important railway routes (it was easier to transport troops)
  • The Red Army successfully defeated each White army and prevented them working together effectively
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War Communism

  • Economic policies the Communists introduced during the Civil War to help achieve victory
  • Communists controlled the inductrial centres
  • Industry was nationalised and factories were converted to produce military supplies and equipment
  • policy of requisitioning food from the peasants to feed workers and Red Army
  • Helped Communists win the Civil War
  • allowed Bolsheviks to maintain war supplies needed for the Red Army
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Red Leadership

  • Unified leadership under Lenin
  • Trotsky was an effective leader of the Red Army
  • Trotsky enforced strict discipline and used political officers in the army to ensure loyalty
  • Trotsky used an amoured train to visit and support areas under threat
  • Lenin used the Cheka to eliminate political opposition
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Foreign Intervention

  • By the end of 1919 foreign forces from Britain, France and the USA had left Russia
  • Foreign forces stopped supplying the Whites (after the armistice to end WW1 had been signed)
  • Foreign leaders realised the Whites wouldn' win the Civil War
  • During 1919 Polish forces had invaded Ukraine and capture Kiev - Lenin irdered the Red Army to invade Poland and it did but it was defeated in 1920 at Warsaw
  • April 1921 - the Treaty of Riga was signed between Russia and Poland
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