Reasons for restoration of the monarchy in 1660

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The Contribution of George Moncke

  • He opposed the dissolution of the Rump Parliament by Lambert and the Council of the Army and defeated Lambert after returning from Scotland
  • Moncke's victory led to the recalling of the Rump Parliament
  • He also readmitted the MP's excluded in Pride's Purge making royal restoration more likely.
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Political weaknesses of the Protectorate

  • It failed to create a civilian based settlement which was acceptable to all
  • There was still divisions in society - between religious groups, between army groups and the between the civilian population and the military
  • The Protectorate propped up by the army had proved that it could "destroy but not create" 
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Lack of support

  • Oliver Cromwell alienated the republicans, by becoming "King in all but name" 
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The death of Oliver Cromwell

  • Richard Cromwell lacked the natural loyalty of the army which his father had used to his advantage
  • Wihout this, Richard was open to army opposition, as come in 1659 when the army demanded that Richard dissolve parliament and resign, which he eventually did
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Appeal of the monarchy

  • After years of a republic state, propped by the army, for examples Prides Purge, Rule of Major Generals and taxes imposed by them along with various dissolutions of parliament, people were ready for stability
  • Many of the traditional ruling elite were also in favour of a return to traditional ruling elite were also in favour of a return to traditional rule after their world had been turned up side down by the English Revolution and the strict of the Protectorate in ts quest for Godly reformation
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Religion

  • Cromwell's protectorate had been based on religious toleration 
  • He had been dubbed "the darling of sectaries", a derogatory term used to highlight his favourism of religious sects. 
  • Many people especially the Presbyterians began to see the reurn of a strong monarchy as the only way to avoid domination of religious sects such as Baptists and Fifth Monarchists
  • Charles 2nd would not be so tolerant and would bring a central government controlling religion 
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The Army

  • The army was months in arrears of pay, despite high taxation during the Rule of the Major Generals
  • The army could pull the strings, especially now the strong leader Oliver Cromwell was dead. 
  • Many in the army, wanted a continuation of the protectorate because they thought they could control the weaker Richard Cromwell 
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The Role Played by Charles the Second

  • He didnt attempt invasion or return until he was invited by Parliament 
  • He moved himself on the continent to a protestant country, therefore distancing himself from Catholicsm 
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Money

  • The Protectorate's success had been limited by its lack of money, a theme running through the Stuart Era. 
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