The Contribution of George Moncke
- He opposed the dissolution of the Rump Parliament by Lambert and the Council of the Army and defeated Lambert after returning from Scotland
- Moncke's victory led to the recalling of the Rump Parliament
- He also readmitted the MP's excluded in Pride's Purge making royal restoration more likely.
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Political weaknesses of the Protectorate
- It failed to create a civilian based settlement which was acceptable to all
- There was still divisions in society - between religious groups, between army groups and the between the civilian population and the military
- The Protectorate propped up by the army had proved that it could "destroy but not create"
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Lack of support
- Oliver Cromwell alienated the republicans, by becoming "King in all but name"
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The death of Oliver Cromwell
- Richard Cromwell lacked the natural loyalty of the army which his father had used to his advantage
- Wihout this, Richard was open to army opposition, as come in 1659 when the army demanded that Richard dissolve parliament and resign, which he eventually did
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Appeal of the monarchy
- After years of a republic state, propped by the army, for examples Prides Purge, Rule of Major Generals and taxes imposed by them along with various dissolutions of parliament, people were ready for stability
- Many of the traditional ruling elite were also in favour of a return to traditional ruling elite were also in favour of a return to traditional rule after their world had been turned up side down by the English Revolution and the strict of the Protectorate in ts quest for Godly reformation
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- Cromwell's protectorate had been based on religious toleration
- He had been dubbed "the darling of sectaries", a derogatory term used to highlight his favourism of religious sects.
- Many people especially the Presbyterians began to see the reurn of a strong monarchy as the only way to avoid domination of religious sects such as Baptists and Fifth Monarchists
- Charles 2nd would not be so tolerant and would bring a central government controlling religion
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- The army was months in arrears of pay, despite high taxation during the Rule of the Major Generals
- The army could pull the strings, especially now the strong leader Oliver Cromwell was dead.
- Many in the army, wanted a continuation of the protectorate because they thought they could control the weaker Richard Cromwell
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The Role Played by Charles the Second
- He didnt attempt invasion or return until he was invited by Parliament
- He moved himself on the continent to a protestant country, therefore distancing himself from Catholicsm
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- The Protectorate's success had been limited by its lack of money, a theme running through the Stuart Era.
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