Reason and Experience: certainty



Contingent/ necessity - Inductive /deductive


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  • Understood knowledge in terms of what is `completely certain`.

What is certainty?

  • Subjective & psycholgical meaning.
  • Logical meaning.
  • That a proposition cannot be doubted.


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Contigent/ Necessary

Contigent/ necessary:

  • A proposition is contingent if it could be true or false.
  •  e.g there are more types of insect than there are animals. But this wasnt always true and oe day it might be false again.
  • Aposteriori knowledge is contingent.
  • A proposition is necessary if it is not only true- but must be true.
  • e.g mathematives are usually thought to be necessary- 2 +2 must equal 4.
  • Analytic truths are necessary.

Introspection and tautology:

  • A tautology is a statement that says the same thing twice in different words.
  • what is tautological is certain.

Can any beliefs other than beliefs about analytic truths be

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