Re - paper 1, section 2

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  • Abortion - removal of a foetus from the womb before it cant survive
  • Euthanasia - painlessly killing someone dying from a painful disease
  • Voluntary euthanasia - ending life painlessly when someone if great pain asks for death
  • Non-voluntary euthanasia - ending someone life painlessly when they are unable to ask, you have to have a good reason for thinking they would want to do so
  • Assisted suicide - providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide
  • Near-death experience - when someone about to die has an out of body experience
  • Paranormal - unexplained things which are thought to have spiritual causes
  • Quality of life 0 the idea that life must have some benefits to be worth living
  • Sanctity of life - the belief that life is holy and belongs to God
  • Immortality of the soul - the idea that the soul lives on after the death of the body
  • Reincarnation - the belief that after death, souls are reborn in a new body
  • Resurrection - the belief that after death the body stays in the ground until the end of the world when it rises
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Christian’s beliefs about life after death

  • The Gospels and New Testament say Jesus rose from the dead.
  • St Paul's teaches that people will have a resurrection like Jesus.
  • Churches teach there is life after death
  • Many believe in Life after death as it gives their life a purpose, they feels like they will be judges on how they live their life and the good get rewarded whilst the bad get punished. This belief affects the life of a Christian.
  • In the parable of the sheep, Jesus taught Christians to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, befriend strangers and visit the sick and those in prison. Jesus taught in the Good Samaritan that loving your neighbour means helping those in need. This is why many Christians work for charities.
  • Christians believe that sinning can prevent people from getting into heaven and any unforgiving sins will send them to hell, so this means they try to avoid committing sins.
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Islam and life after death

  •   The Qur’an teaches there is life after death and they believe the Qur’an is the word of God and his teachings must be true.
  •   Muhammad taught there was life after death and they believe he is a perfect example for Muslims so his teachings must be true.
  •  Believing in life after death is 1 of the 6 fundamental beliefs of Islam which they are expected to believe.
  • Muslims believe life is a test from God, the judgement shows how well they did, those who pass get rewarded so there must be another life afterwards. This affects how they life as the try to avoid going to hell.
  •   Many believe as it gives life meaning and purpose as their life doesn't end, instead they spend eternity in heaven. They therefor suffer less depression.
  •  Living a good Muslim life means keeping to the 5 pillars of Islam (praying 5 times a day, fasting during Ramadan, paying Zakah and going on hajj), they will stick to this for the good afterlife. 
  •   Living a good Muslin life also includes eating halal food, observing dress laws, not drinking alcohol, not gambling, not being involved with lending or interest etc.
  • Muslims believe in resurrections, so nothing can be removed from the body, this affects their life’s as they avoid post-mortems and transplant surgery.
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Non-religous beliefs about life after death

  • Near-death experiences, research shows 8% of people have this experience so their must be life after death.
  • Evidence for a spiritual world, Many believe in ghosts or ouija boards, the clearest evidence is from mediums (people who can communicate with material from the spiritual world). Many mediums claim that leaders such a Muhammad and Jesus were in touch with this world. They believe this life gives people another chance.
  • Evidence of reincarnation, Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists believe in reincarnation and have collected evidence for it, which proves life after death is true.
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Why some people don't believe in life after death

  • Don't believe in God, or being brought up around atheists would cause most people not to believe.
  • Different religions contradict each other, Christians, Muslin's and Jews believe in resurrection/immortality of the soul. Whereas, Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists believe in reincarnation. If it was true then all should say the same.
  • Evidence is based on Holy books which contradict each other, no way to decide which is right/wrong.
  • Evidence of paranormal has been challenged by scientists.
  • Science shows that the mind/soul cant live without the brain, so when the body dies they do to.
  • Space journeys show their isn't a heaven above sky, so their isn't anywhere for it to happen.
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The media and matters of life and death

  • Some people believe the media should be free to criticise what religions say about matters of life and death:
  • Criticising religious believes is a way to stir up religious hared which is banned by the Racial and Religious Hatred Act of 2007.
  • Many religious people believe the freedom of the media should be limited because to offence criticism of religious attitudes, which could cause riots.
  • Some believe that criticising what religious leaders say is close to the crime of blasphemy. 
  • Some religious people feel that religious statements are based on Gods words which are beyond human criticism.
  • Arguments that the media should be free to criticise what religions say about life after death:
  • Freedom of expression is a basic human right needed for the democracy to work, people need to know what is going on in order to vote,
  • If religious leader use the media to make statements on religion the same as everything else they must be prepared for the media to criticise the comments.
  • In a multi-faith society their must be freedom of religious belief and expression. The media has the right to question/criticise what people say.
  • Life and death issues are important to everyone and people need to see the right views, which cant happen is they are not allowed to put forward views that could be criticized.
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Nature of Abortion

  • 2 doctors have to agree the mother life's at risk, her physical/mental health is at risk, the child will be severely handicapped or their would be a serious affect on other children in the family.
  • Up to 24 weeks unless the mothers like is at risk or the child is severely handicapped.
  • Many believe life starts at conception, so abortion is murder.
  • Many believe, life starts when the baby can live on its own, which not everyone agrees on.
  • Many non-religious think women should have the right to do what they want with their body and an unwanted baby should be treated like an unwanted tumour.
  • Many religious people believe the unborn child's right to live is greater than the mothers rights.
  • Some think that the time limit should be reduces to 18-20 weeks due to medical advances.
  • Medical staff shouldn't be forced to carry out abortion is they don't want to.
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Christian views on Abortion

  • Christians interpret the Bible differently.
  •  The Catholic church and Evangelical Protestant churches teach all abortion is wrong apart from medical treatments for the mother which affects the foetus,
  • Life belongs to God so only God had the right to end a pregnancy.
  • Life begins at conception so abortion is murder which is banned in the 10 commandments.
  • They should follow the teachings of the catholic Catechism (and Evangelical Protestant Churches) that say abortion is murder.
  • Counselling and adoption are alternatives to abortion for women made pregnant by **** so good can come out of evil in a new life.
  • Other Christians (mainly Liberal Protestants) disagree with abortion but allow it in certain circumstances.
  • Life doesn't start at conception.
  • Jesus comment to love you neighbour shows it is a duty to remove suffering which abortion does.
  • The sanctity can be broken in war so why not with abortion?
  • Tests can show certain medical conditions in unborn babies so abortion should be allowed to prevent serious medical conditions.
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Islams view on Abortion

  • Muslims interpret the Qur'an differently.
  • Many allow abortions up to 120 days when the mother or babies heath is at risk. The effect of adding a bay to the family can also be considered up to this date.
  • A foetues doesn't recieve its sould until this date.
  • The Shari'ah says the mothers life must always take priority.
  • Some believe abortion should never be allowed as life begins at conception and the Qur'an bans abortions as it says murder is wrong and they believe abortion is murder.
  • Some Muslims believe abortion may be allowed only if the mothers life is as risk as the death of an unborn child is a lesser evil than the death of the mother and the Shari'ah says the mother life must always take priority.
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Nature of Euthanasia

  • British laws say all types of euthanasia are murder, however it does agree that passive euthanasia (stopping artificial feeding/treatment) shouldn't be classed as euthanasia so it is lawful.
  • Many want it to remain legal as you cant be sure its what the person wants, a cure could be found for the disease, doctors should be saving life not ending them, people might change their mind after its to late, and not everyone needs it.
  • However, many people want it to be made legal because even though medicines could be found people are being kelp alive in agony when they should have the right to die, doctors should have the right to turn on life support machines is they believe the patient has no chance of recovering and allow people who have been in a long term coma to die to it is already legal and people have the right to commit suicide - so they should have the right to ask other such as doctors to if they are unable to themselves. 
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Christians views on Euthanasia (most christians)

  • Christians interpret the Bible differently 
  • All Christians believe euthanasia is wrong but their are slightly different attitudes.
  • Catholics and many Liberal Protestants believe all types of euthanasia are wrong, however they believe passive euthanasia isn't euthanasia. (switching of life supports, stopping artificial feeding or giving large doses of painkillers).
  • They believe in the sanctity of life. Life is created by God and its up to God when people die.
  • Euthanasia is murder which is banned in the 10 Commandments
  • If doctors say someone if brain-dead then they have already died, switching of machines is accepting what God had already decided.
  • If giving painkillers to someone kills them it is not murder as the intention was to remove pain.
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Christians views on Euthanasia (some/few Christian

  • Some Christians believe any form of Euthanasia is wrong including passive Euthanasia:
  • They follow the Bibles teaching which bans suicide.
  • Even passive euthanasia isn't right, as God has to make the decisions.
  • All forms are murder which is banned in the 10 commandments.
  • Life is sacred and should only be taken by God. The Bible says life and death decisions belong to God alone.
  • Few Christians accept euthanasia in certain circumstances:
  • Medical advances make it hard to know Gods wishes, God may want to take someone who doctors are keeping alive
  • Jesus taught that loving you neighbour could be used to justify assisted suicide as it can be the most loving thing to do
  • Its a basic human right to have control over your body and what people do to it, so people have the right to refuse medical treatment and should be allowed to ask for euthanasia.
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Islams views on Euthanasia

  • Muslin's interpret the Qur'an differently
  • All Muslin's are against Euthanasia but their are 2 slightly different attitudes.
  • most Muslims are against all forms of Euthanasia:
  • The Qur'an bans suicide and so assisted suicide is wrong.
  • Most believe that voluntary euthanasia is the same as assisted euthanasia.
  • Euthanasia is making yourself equal to God, which is the greatest sin of shirk.
    Euthanasia is murder, which is banned by the Qur'an.
  • Muslin's believe life if a test from God and euthanasia is cheating the test by trying to speed it up. 
  • Some Muslims agree is is wrong but think switching of life supports is not euthanasia:
  • Some Muslim lawyers agree they can be turned of when there are no signs of life.
  • If someone ins brain-dead, God has already taken their life.
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