Role of a Priest- Performs many of the sacraments/offers Mass regularly for his people/offers reconciliation / baptises children / conducts marriages and funeral/teaching role in the Mass, where he explains the word of God to the congregation and brings Jesus to them by transforming the bread and wine into His body and blood
Role of Lay People-reading / music/leadership of groups/counselling/care of buildings/membership of, e.g. S.V.P./help with, e.g. parish accounts / support of parish clergy.
Rite of Ordination- pivotal role in the community/God calls men to continue Jesus’ ministry/they have the power and authority to live and act like Jesus/they give out the sacraments (examples should be credited, e.g. baptises babies, consecrates the bread and wine) and lead prayer and public worship/proclaim the Gospel and act as a shepherd to God’s flock
Contemplative Orders-By dedication of life to prayer/ separate from world/by prayer for world or for special cause/make liturgical items, e.g. candles, altar bread/ poverty / chastity / obedience, etc.
Member of contemplative orders are escaping from real life- No worries about money, family problems/secure in illness or old age not aware of problems in wider world/Access to media so know about world requests for prayer make them aware of people’s concerns/personal struggles/choice made to use talents in this way.
Explain briefly the meaning of the vow of poverty taken by members of religious orders.- Dedication to God/commitment to vocation/focused on ministry, free from distraction/not concerned for worldly possessions / not distracted by materialism/willingness to serve God and others unconditionally.
‘There is no difference between divorce and annulment.’- Agree-- Both bring an end to a relationships/both require a divorce to be obtained/they may be different terms but the outcome is the same Disagree-- Annulment is quite different from divorce one is a statement of failure while the other declares the invalidity of the marriage in the first place/difference is too subtle for non-Roman Catholics to fully appreciate/the church accepts that some marriages should never have been made but
Explain beliefs about marriage expressed in the vows made in a Christian marriage service.- Marriage should be lifelong/exclusive/mutually supportive/life-giving/loving/until death do us part/in sickness and in health/for better, for worse / for richer for poorer
Expalin why the Roman Catholic Churhc is agaisnt Contraception- Prevents possibility of new life/emergency contraception might be early abortion/sex should be within marriage and vows promise life-giving/may encourage promiscuity.
Explain why some marriages fail- Tragedy / illness / lack of communication / irreconcilable differences / irretrievable breakdown / fall out of love / drift apart in time /
Explain how the Roman Catholic Church supports those who experience difficulties in their married life. - Counselling from priests to help them overcome their problems/marriage guidance counselling service /role of lay people in helping others/separation is permitted in extreme circumstances/support to find resolution to save the marriage/provides premarital courses to offset some of the difficulties that may arise, etc.
‘Divorced Roman Catholics should be allowed to remarry in church.’- Agree Church should include not exclude people/ God’s love is for all/God ready to forgive/example of Jesus/people make mistakes and should have chance of fresh start/innocent partners are penalised. Disagree-Vows should not be broken/sacrament is permanent/remarriage would be adultery/Church cannot change teaching on this any change might weaken marriage itself.
Explain briefly the meaning of the rings in a Christian marriage- Unending nature of marriage / mutual love / fidelity / may use actual words – ‘Take this ring as a sign of my love and fidelity.’
Why do many Roman Catholics believe that abortion is never acceptable?- Abortion is the intentional killing of a human being./The fifth commandment states “do not murder”./This is unconditional and since Roman Catholics believe that human life begins at the moment of conception, abortion is regarded as murder./ No one has the right to interfere with God’s plan for humanity./Each and every life is precious in the eyes of God./Roman Catholics believe that we are created in the image of God for a purpose./Before we were born God knew us.
‘Christians are right to believe in life after death.’- Agree-Gospel evidence is compelling / empty tomb / resurrection appearances importance of resurrection for St Paul’ preaching/centrality to the Christian faith/meaning it gives to living / optimism / source of hope and inspiration for those who are ill DisagreeOffers a false sense of hope/ means of social control/gives people a false sense of security/encourages them to accept their present condition as the will of God in anticipation of role reversal/lack of evidence for its existence
Describe the Death Rites- Before death Viaticum/support in suffering /prayer for journey out of life/special form of Eucharist which reminds of Jesus’ suffering and death which was followed by resurrection/Sacrament of the Sick offers forgiveness of sin/spiritual courage and healing.
‘Human life should never be taken.’- Agree-Murder against Commandments/God has purpose for all, only God decides when life is ended/duty of Christian to protect life/ made in God’s image / something of God in each person/right to life applies to all / love of neighbour/in context of abortion life begins at conception so a life is being taken. DisagreeHuman life is taken in wars/euthanasia may be a loving act/in context of abortion the unborn may be seen as not achieving full human status until later stages of pregnancy/taking unborn life may save mother’s life.
Roman Catholics should not be afraid of death.- All will die/Christianity promises an afterlife/life and example of Jesus/teachings of church.
Explain what the Roman Catholic Church teaches about abortion.-Breaks the Commandment ‘Thou shalt not kill’/life begins at conception/all life God given and precious/basic human right is right to life
Christian response to Global issues
Long term solutions- term aid means giving them the equipment and resources needed to work towards a solution to their problems/provide tools, seeds and education to enable the inhabitants of a poor country to work their way out of poverty/fund projects such as the digging of a well in a village to enable the local people to have clean water for drinking, washing and cooking/provide medical help to treat diseases and prolong life expectancy/teaching them better farming techniques, such as how to irrigate land and crop rotation /
Short Term Aid- Emergency Aid/ respond quickly to sudden emergencies and disasters/medical help and food supplies
Describe some of the differences between rich and poor countries.- Rich –plenty of food /abundant clean water / free education for all / better life chances / low infant mortality / free health care / higher levels of employment / work less likely to harm health / support for unemployed. Poor –shortage of food / lack of clean water / lack of basic education / high infant mortality / maternal mortality / poor health care / expense of health care / low pay, low skills jobs / fewer chances to better life / less protection for workers` health / lack of support for unemployed.
Christian response to Global issues
'Ending poverty is the most important duty for Christians.’- Agree/Christians have duty to share God’s creative work/example of Jesus/Parable of Sheep and Goats/Great Commandment/ work of many Christian charities Disagree Many areas where Christians have duties-war, abortion, euthanasia for example Christians cannot change the world/‘the poor are always with you’ / ‘Love begins by taking care of the closest ones-the ones at home’ (M.Teresa) duty to family comes first/confusion about how to end poverty.
‘All nuclear weapons should be destroyed.’-Agree:Able to destroy world/use money and resources which might alleviate poverty/create arms race and suspicion between nations/destructive purpose goes against God’s plan for world/possession increases danger of accidental use or use by rogue state/can never meet conditions for just war Disagree-states have duty to protect their citizens/possession does not necessarily mean use/not possible to turn clock back/effective means of detterence
Sacrament of Reconciliation
Explain one situation in which some Christians might support the use of the death penalty - Person has committed a terrible crime such as murder/ society needs to be protected and feel safe/justice needs to be done/ society needs to show its revulsion and intolerance of such crimes
Describe what happens during the Sacrament of Reconciliation-Penitent either goes into traditional type confessional or is face to face with priest/confesses his or her sins/is helped and encouraged by priest/penance given as action which will give satisfaction – usually in form of prayers to be said/act of contrition said/absolution given.
‘The Sacrament of Reconciliation is no longer needed.’- Agree-Just a formula of words/feel no different after/ hard to talk to someone you hardly know about things that trouble you deeply/hardly anyone goes now/no need of someone to forgive me Disagree- Modern celebration more accessible confessor / penitent relationship can be helpful, e.g. in clearing of conscience/keeps one in touch with Church community/ Easter duty rule and tradition/prepares for other sacraments
Sacrament of Reconciliation
‘It is not possible to love your enemies.’- Agree Harm done by real enemy too great to forgive, e.g. murder /sometimes enmity lasts many generations, e.g. between nations or religions /many examples of inability to forgive/maybe could forgive but could never love an enemy.Disagree What does love mean here/treat justly/example and teaching of Jesus/example of many contemporary Christians, e.g. Gee Walker / future of human race depends on reconciliation.
Explain some of the causes of crime. - Poverty / lack of education / lack of moral training / addiction / gang culture /dysfunctional family life / lack of moral leadership
Explain what a believer might learn about Christian living from the Ten Commandments and from the Beatitudes. - challenge of putting God first, not using God’s name in vain and setting aside time each week for worship and reflection/ challenge of loving one’s neighbour and showing that in our relationships with/others and in our attitude to them/difficulties associated with honouring our parents, not committing murder, theft or adultery/challenge of maintaining the good name of others by not telling lies and avoiding coveting the possessions of others/demands of the Beatitudes :difficulty in being a peacemaker in the modern world/being humble / seeking justice / being pure at heart, etc./ reference to the rewards mentioned in the Beatitudes/ inheriting the Kingdom of God
‘Happy are those who are persecuted because they do what God requires.’Explain briefly what this might mean for Christians.-ridicule over religious observance / difficulty in defending ethical positions, e.g. euthanasia, sexual morality / difficulty in „turning the other cheek‟ / feeling of isolation in society / real persecution in some societies, e.g. China.
What can Christians learn about reconciliation from the Parable of the Forgiving Father? God is like the father in the story/Christians should try to follow the example of unconditional loving and unlimited forgiveness shown by the father/people can be like the elder brother/find it difficult to forgive / hold grudges/fail to see the genuine sorrow and repentance in others
Explain what the Parable of the Forgiving Father teaches Christians aboutforgiveness.Younger son is able to ask for forgiveness/father ready to forgive freely/ elder son has to recognise that forgiveness is unconditional/all entitled to God’s love/be ready to ask for, to grant forgiveness and not to be resentful/ nothing is too bad to be forgiven
Interprating the parable of the good samaritan- Loving God and loving nighbour is at the centre of what it means to be a christian and inherit eternal life. Thoughtlessly following ritual laws is not enough. Being a christain demands actions not just beliefs. Christians have a duty to offer help to those in need. The parabel amswers the question "who is my neigbour?" by suggesting anyone in need is your neigbour.
Interperting the parable fo the Goats and Sheep- It's a powerful text. Christians have a duty to love their neighbour. This is at the heart of what it means to be christian. Loving Christ means serving others, especially the needy. The parable fo the sheeps and goats shwos how christians how they can demostrate practical loving kindness.
The parable of the unmerciful servant-In the Parable of the Unforgiving / Unmerciful / Unjust Servant, Jesus is teaching His disciples, and us by extension, that forgiveness should be in like proportion to the amount forgiven. The first servant had been forgiven all, and he then should have forgiven all. In like manner, a child of God by faith through Christ has had all sins forgiven. Therefore, when someone offends or sins against us we should be willing to forgive him from a heart of gratitude for the grace to which we ourselves are debtors.
All in one Christ Galatians-There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Christ Jesus.all Christians are, in the fullest sense, “sons of God.” the present verse shows that there are no exceptions, no inequalities. All Christians alike, no matter what their race, status, or sex, stand on the same footing of sonship before God.