re-constructive memory AND case studies -psychology AS

read my other notes on other case studies!it has to to with eyewitness testimonies which will come up in JAN exam

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  • Created by: zahra
  • Created on: 06-11-12 15:49

bartlett-re constructive momory


  • war of ghosts is his famous story
  • repeated:story distorted/shorted/detail lost/changed/structure altered/more westernised/death scenes more vivid
  • clash of cultural knowledge
  • remembering involves search for meaning
  • effort to make events logical
  • distorted to make sense(we have fixed understanding of world)
  • Bartlett says knowledge of world stored in units(SCHEMAS)
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Bartlett-constructive memory(SCHEMAS)


  • store bits of story in LTM
  • when recalling we fill gaps using schema's(our knowledge)
  • reconstruct story with schema's
  • e.g:in the war of ghosts story,the word canoe was used.many English people can say boat because they know something that carries people on water as boat(using our knowledge)
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case studies

  • in depth study of a person/small group/specific environment
  • examples:
  • HM: anterograde amnesia after surgery to remove epilepsy
  • KF:stmdeficitsafter head injury
  • CLIVE WEARING:retrograde and anterograde amnesia after viral brain infection.

case studies focus on sourced of data.if focuses on sport,clinical and educational psychology

whats in a case study?:

  • case history
  • description and diagnosis of problem
  • record of treatment /intervention
  • record of outcome
  • biographical info
  • interviews
  • previous school records
  • employment and medical report from others

it can...

  • generate new theoretical ideas
  • test out existing theories
  • develop new measuring instruments and research technique
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loftus and palmer case study...

aim: investigate how info provided to a witness after an event will influence their memory of that event

method: lab experiment.Iv was verb used and DV is the estimate of speed(MPH)/problem may be that students may not know how to drive!no experience!

experiment 1:

  • 45 students shows video clips
  • split into 5 groups.each have 9 participants
  • asked how fast car went when ____(verb)____ each other
  • each of the 5 groups had different verbs
  • when 'smashed' verb used,the estimate speed was higher
  • phrasing effects result!

result: phrasing influences participants speed estimates.when verb smashed used,their estimates were higher.

experiment 2:

  • 150 students shows film/multi car accident
  • 3 groups have 50 parts each
  • group 1:how fast cars went when 'hit' each other?
  • group 2:how fast went when 'smashed' each other
  • group 3:not asked on speed
  • 1 week later,part returned and asked if any broken glass was seen
  • IV:2 verbs.hit vs smashed
  • DV:weather broken glass was seen or not

result: verb used in original question influenced weather parts saw broken glass or not
'smashed' verb made parts say broken glass seen

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Evaluation for loftus and palmers case study AND D

for experiment 1: different speed estimates occurred as word influence.word arranges persons memory so they 'see' accident differently.(more or less severe)

for experiment 2: experiments reflect way people behave in everyday life.wasn't due to response bias as all parts asked if broken glass seen.leading questions influence memory or event


  • its a video .not as realistic as what you'd see in real life.may not pay attention as much]
  • students not real world people.American.cant be generalised to EVREYONE
  • lab experiment-not realistic/low in ecological validity/they know they're taking part so demand characteristics can be a problem
  • increase in emotion in real life ( maybe you will see things differently due to shock?)
  • questions may be asked later on(you may have opportunity to discuss with others)
  • like being Americans,they're also students!yet again this is a reason why they cant represent general population
  • as they are student,some of them probably cant drive and so how ill they have a valid guess without experience?
  • its easier for some  to guess speed such as policeor taxt drivers being in the group.
  • what is the driver is visible as a young man(estimated speed higher? or a old woman(estimated speed lower?)
  • what if the car type was a porchse or a rusty old car?

read my other notes on other case studies!it has to to with eyewitness testimonies which will come up in JAN exam

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Navi Kaurdashian


It  was helpful, but it was to much information on one slide; the highlighting was helpful as it made it helpful to remember, I would advice to highlight key information on every slide. Thx alot !!!!

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