bartlett-re constructive momory
- war of ghosts is his famous story
- repeated:story distorted/shorted/detail lost/changed/structure altered/more westernised/death scenes more vivid
- clash of cultural knowledge
- remembering involves search for meaning
- effort to make events logical
- distorted to make sense(we have fixed understanding of world)
- Bartlett says knowledge of world stored in units(SCHEMAS)
- store bits of story in LTM
- when recalling we fill gaps using schema's(our knowledge)
- reconstruct story with schema's
- e.g:in the war of ghosts story,the word canoe was used.many English people can say boat because they know something that carries people on water as boat(using our knowledge)
- in depth study of a person/small group/specific environment
- HM: anterograde amnesia after surgery to remove epilepsy
- KF:stmdeficitsafter head injury
- CLIVE WEARING:retrograde and anterograde amnesia after viral brain infection.
case studies focus on sourced of data.if focuses on sport,clinical and educational psychology
whats in a case study?:
- case history
- description and diagnosis of problem
- record of treatment /intervention
- record of outcome
- biographical info
- previous school records
- employment and medical report from others
- generate new theoretical ideas
- test out existing theories
- develop new measuring instruments and research technique
loftus and palmer case study...
aim: investigate how info provided to a witness after an event will influence their memory of that event
method: lab experiment.Iv was verb used and DV is the estimate of speed(MPH)/problem may be that students may not know how to drive!no experience!
- 45 students shows video clips
- split into 5 groups.each have 9 participants
- asked how fast car went when ____(verb)____ each other
- each of the 5 groups had different verbs
- when 'smashed' verb used,the estimate speed was higher
- phrasing effects result!
result: phrasing influences participants speed estimates.when verb smashed used,their estimates were higher.
- 150 students shows film/multi car accident
- 3 groups have 50 parts each
- group 1:how fast cars went when 'hit' each other?
- group 2:how fast went when 'smashed' each other
- group 3:not asked on speed
- 1 week later,part returned and asked if any broken glass was seen
- IV:2 verbs.hit vs smashed
- DV:weather broken glass was seen or not
result: verb used in original question influenced weather parts saw broken glass or not
'smashed' verb made parts say broken glass seen
Evaluation for loftus and palmers case study AND D
for experiment 1: different speed estimates occurred as word influence.word arranges persons memory so they 'see' accident differently.(more or less severe)
for experiment 2: experiments reflect way people behave in everyday life.wasn't due to response bias as all parts asked if broken glass seen.leading questions influence memory or event
- its a video .not as realistic as what you'd see in real life.may not pay attention as much]
- students not real world people.American.cant be generalised to EVREYONE
- lab experiment-not realistic/low in ecological validity/they know they're taking part so demand characteristics can be a problem
- increase in emotion in real life ( maybe you will see things differently due to shock?)
- questions may be asked later on(you may have opportunity to discuss with others)
- like being Americans,they're also students!yet again this is a reason why they cant represent general population
- as they are student,some of them probably cant drive and so how ill they have a valid guess without experience?
- its easier for some to guess speed such as policeor taxt drivers being in the group.
- what is the driver is visible as a young man(estimated speed higher? or a old woman(estimated speed lower?)
- what if the car type was a porchse or a rusty old car?
read my other notes on other case studies!it has to to with eyewitness testimonies which will come up in JAN exam