The 3 Refuges/3 Jewels
1) The Buddha = Siddattha Gautama
2) The Sangha = Community of Buddhists
3) The Dhamma = Truth taught by the Buddha
Buddhists are devoted too and take refuge in these three things.
The 3 Universal Truths (Marks of Existence)
1) Anicca = Constant change and impermanence. Everything changes and nothing lasts forever.
2) Dukkha = The idea that there is pain and suffering in the world. If we cannot accet this then Dukkha will occur.
3) Anatta = There is no permanent soul/being. There is no eternal life.
The 3 Poisons
Buddhists believe they should strive to end the three poisons from their lives. The three poisons represent a viscious circle.
1) Lobha-Cockrel-Represents Greed
Distracts you and leads you away from the path of enlightenment
2) Devesha-Snake-Represents anger and hatred
Causes us to reject things we dont like instead of accepting them as necessary suffering
3) Moha-Pig-Represents ignorance and delusion
Prevents us from knowing the true nature of the path of Nibbana
The life of the Buddha
- Siddhartha Gautama was as a Hindu Prince and when he was born a wise man said that he would be a great ruler or a religious man.
- He was locked inside his family's palace by his father as he did not want his son experiencing suffering.
- One day he snuck out of the palace with his charioteer and he saw these four things:
1) Old man
3) Dead Man
4) Holy Man
- Siddhartha then went into the forest and attempted to live on one grain of rice; the five men he was teaching left so he decided to go the 'Middle Way'
The Buddha ultimately wanted to find out the answer to two questions:
1) Why is there suffering?
2) Where is happiness to be found?
Karma, Samsara and Nibbana
Karma = A persons actions leading to either good/bad karma in their next life. If a person has a lot of good karma then they will return in their next life as something better until eventually they get broken out of the cycle and into Nibbana.
Samsara = Cycle of birth, death and re-birth.
Nibbana = When a Buddhist is enlightened they are not reborn anymore but instead go to Nibbana. (Heaven-like place)
1) World of the Gods - Everyone is happy, pure and peaceful and they live longer.
2) World of the Aggressive Gods - Driven to suceed, have angry impulses.
3) Animal World - People are driven by food, sex and comfort.
4) Hell Realms - People have enhanced hatred and bad karma.
5) Hungry Ghosts - Not satisfied with their lives and always want more.
6) Human Realms - People are creative and have a high chance of being enlightened.
4 Noble Truths and Tahna
The 4 Noble Truths
1) 'There is suffering' (Dukkha-Understanding that all life involves suffering)
2) 'Suffering has an origin' (Samudaya-Finding out where the suffering has come from)
3) 'Suffering can cease' (Nirodha-People need to understand that life can be enjoyed without craving things; finding a cure for the suffering)
4) 'There is a path out of suffering' (Magga-Living the 'Middle Way' which involves not living a life of luxury nor a life of poverty; living this way if the treatment for sufering)
Tahna means ambition, craving, restlessness or thirst. It is the feeling of wanting more and links to suffering and the desire for things which are not necessarily needed.
NB) Linked to the 3 poisons and 4 noble truths.