The 4 noble truths
- The truth of suffering (Dukkha)
- The truth of the origin of suffering (Samudāya)
- The truth of the cessation of suffering (Nirodha)
- The truth of the path to the cessation of suffering (Magga)
The 4 noble truths- details
Suffering comes in many forms. Three obvious kinds of suffering correspond to the first three sights the Buddha saw on his first journey outside his palace: old age, sickness and death.
Thirst, pain from an injury, sadness from the loss of a loved one.
The Buddha taught that the way to extinguish desire, which causes suffering, is to liberate oneself from attachment.
The final Noble Truth is the Buddha's prescription for the end of suffering. This is a set of principles called the Eightfold Path.
The Eightfold Path
Right Understanding - Sammā ditthi
- Accepting Buddhist teachings. (The Buddha never intended his followers to believe his teachings blindly, but to practise them and judge for themselves whether they were true.)
Right Intention - Sammā san̄kappa
- A commitment to cultivate the right attitudes.
Right Speech - Sammā vācā
- Speaking truthfully, avoiding slander, gossip and abusive speech.
Right Action - Sammā kammanta
- Behaving peacefully and harmoniously; refraining from stealing, killing and overindulgence in sensual pleasure.
The eightfold path 2
Right Livelihood - Sammā ājīva
- Avoiding making a living in ways that cause harm, such as exploiting people or killing animals, or trading in intoxicants or weapons.
Right Effort - Sammā vāyāma
- Cultivating positive states of mind; freeing oneself from evil and unwholesome states and preventing them arising in future.
Right Mindfulness - Sammā sati
- Developing awareness of the body, sensations, feelings and states of mind.
Right Concentration - Sammā samādhi
- Developing the mental focus necessary for this awareness.
The five precepts
The five precepts are the equivelent of the ten commandments but for buddhists.
All Buddhists live by the Five Moral Precepts which are refraining from:
- harming living things
- taking what is not given
- sexual misconduct
- lying or gossip
- taking intoxicating substances eg drugs or drink
The Taizé community is an ecumenical monastic order with a strong devotion to peace and justice through prayer and meditation. The 100-strong community of Roman Catholic and Protestant monks is drawn from 30 countries across the world.
It was founded in 1940 by Roger Louis.
Today Taizé is one of the world's most important sites of Christian pilgrimage. Each year tens of thousands of young pilgrims flock to the small village of Taizé in central France to share in the community's way of life.
Prayer and silence are at the heart of the Taizé experience. Young people from every corner of the globe are encouraged to live out the Christian gospel in a spirit of joy, simplicity and reconciliation.
Members share a common Rule which includes: Daily prayer and reading the Bible Mutual sharing and accountability for our use of time and money Regular meeting together Action and reflection for justice, peace and the integrity of creation.the Iona Community has its mainland home in Glasgow, the base for: its work with young people.
Pax Christi: Their focus is on peace.
- Peace - based on justice. A world where human rights are respected,basic needs are met and people feel safe and valued in their communities.
- Reconciliation - a process which begins when people try to mend
relationships – between individuals or whole countries after times of
violence or dispute.
- Nonviolence - a way of living and making choices that respects others,
challenges what is not fair or just, and offers alternatives to violence and war.
Machsomwatch- Machsomwatch is a movement of Israeli women, peace activists from all sectors of Israeli society, who oppose the Israeli occupation and the denial of Palestinians' rights to move freely in their land. Since 2001, we have conducted daily observations of IDF checkpoints in the West Bank, along the separation fence and in the seamline zone, on the main roads and on out-of-the-way dirt roads, as well as in the offices of the Civil Administration (DCOs) and in military courts. We regularly document what we see and hear. The reports of these observations are published on the Machsomwatch site, and sent to public officials and elected representatives.
Attitudes to war
Buddhist: Non-violence is at the heart of Buddhist thinking and behaviour. The first of the five precepts that all Buddhists should follow is "Avoid killing, or harming any living thing."
Christian just war theory: The basic assumption of modern Christians is that war is rarely justified and should be avoided unless the Just War conditions are met.
- To go to war, there has to be a good cause eg self defence, justice or suffering.
- Legal authority: This means that to start a war, you have to be in a proper authority.
- Right intention: You can't start a war for revenge. It should be to restore lasting peace.
- Last resorting peace: Declaring war should only be done if all of the other methods to prevent war have been used.
A covenant is an agreement.
There are many in the bible where people agree to be servants of God. People agreed to follow God and worship him.
The Shema is one of the most important Jewish prayers. It is one of the first prayers that Jewish children learn. Religious Jews say the Shema three times each day as part of their regular prayers, and it is included in almost every synagogue service.
The Shema reminds Jews that:
There is only one God.
God is good and loves them and they should love Him.
God’s rules apply to every part of a person’s life.
Children should be taught about Torah.
The Hebrew word SHEMA means hear or listen. The prayer has three paragraphs, each paragraph is a short passage from the Torah.
Tefillin: Words which are binded to the arm and head to clear the mind and remind the wearer of physical strength. This is only removed during the conclusion of morning services.
Tzitzit and tallit: Jews wear fringes in the corners of their garments to remind them of mitzvot. Tzitzit is white. Its worn over the shoulders.
Mezuzah: Mezuzah is placed on door posts at an angle because the rabbis could not decide wether it should go vertically or horizontally. It is handwritten and reminds people of God's presence.
Yalmulke: This is the hat which Jews where which is also known as the kippah. Covering the head shows respect for God but this symbol has the least significance.
Star of David: This symbol gained popularity in 1897. It represents King David's shield.
Shabbat is welcomed into Jewish homes across the world every Friday. Before sundown 2 candles are lit by the woman of the house. The father of the house says a prayer over the children. Children are considered future; the continuation or the Jewish faith, which is more important than material richals. The father pours out some wine into a special cup and says the Kiddush before taking a sip and passing it around in the family, including children! The bread is cut and sprinkled with salt. Everyone enjoys a slice. Finally, everyone sits down to enjoy a beautiful meal together. The meal lasts the whole evening. It is a time to share news from the week and to sing songs.
- Saturday morning:
Visit to synagogue for prayers
- Spend day at home with family and friends
- Have a midday meal
- When 3 stars appear in the sky on Saturday evening it is time to say goodbye to Shabbat.
- Prayers are said over a cup of wine
- A box of sweet spices is passed around, smelling them helps Jews to remember the sweetness of Shabbat during the working week. They refresh the soul.
They do Shabbat because God rested on the seventh day. Therefore Jews have to rest as well. They can't write, sow or push buttons.
Jews will only eat certain meats and they have to be prepared correctly.
- The food has to be clean
- Animal was painlessly killed
- The meat must be free of blood spots
- They can only eat meat and dairy separately
- They can have cow, sheep, chicken
- They can't have pig, camel, eagle, owl
They must have a split hoof and chew the cud. Only fish with fins and scales may be eaten, for instance, tuna, salmon, and herring. Shellfish such as shrimps, crabs, mussels, and lobsters are forbidden.