RE Islam Belief In God

The Nature of God

Muslims believe that Allah has many characteristics. More than 100 characteristics of Allah appear in the Quran and the Hadith. Tawhid means the oneness and is the belief that Allah is unique and without any parents, partners, siblings.
SOA: ‘Worship god and shun false gods’ (Quran, Surah 16: 35-36)

Immanence and Transcendence

Muslims believe that Allah is the creator of everything. They believe there are parts of his creation that humans can observe and experience, but that much of it is beyond human understanding Muslims have a similar understanding of Allah, that he is both immanence and is transcendent.
SOA: ‘We are closer to him than his jugular vein’ (Quran, Surah 50: 16)


Muslims believe that god has the power to create everything from nothing, and is able to do whatever he wills. He is omnipotent, the only authority in the universe.
SOA: ‘He has power over all things’ (Quran, Surah 2: 107-109)

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The Nature of God


Muslims believe Allah is the most beneficence of all beings and that he loves his creatio. His kindness as not limits.
SOA: ‘Your lord’s bounty is not restricted’ (Quran Surah 17 : 20)


There are 114 chapters in the Quran. Each Surah apart from one starts with ‘In the name of Allah, the most merciful the most gracious’
SOA: ‘My mercy embraces all things’ (Quran Surah 7: 156)

Fairness and Justice

Allahs nature teaches Muslims that they are accountable for what they have and have not done. Allah expects people to show fairness in everything they do.
SOA: ‘If you judge between people, to do so with justice’ (Quran Surah 4: 58)

These characteristics are important as it enables Muslims to establish close relationships with him through worship. Knowing Allah can help Muslims strive to reflect to their actions.

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Muslims believe that Allah is a personal God who can be communicated directly. They also believe that special individuals are chosen by Allah to teach humanity about the right way to live. These people are called prophets. Belief in the prophets is one of the 6 pillars of faith, represents how Allah communicates to people, it reminds people that Allah has spoken to many prophets which means they are required to follow their teachings.

Adam, ibrhaim, Ismail, Dawud, Musa, Isa and Muhammad are examples of prophets
SOA: ‘We believe in God and in what was sent down to us and what was sent down to Abraham, Ismail, Isa, Dawud and the tribes. We make no distinction between any of them’ (Quran Surah 2: 136)

Each prophet has a role and has teached Muslims different things. Muslims use the Quran, Hadith and other texts to know more about the message of God

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Adam is believed to be the first prophet and man on earth. The story of Adam teaches Muslims that they have to follow Allahs commands and not to allow Satan to tempt them to evil.


Ibrahim is considered by Muslims to be one of the greatest prophets. He is one of the Prophets Muhammads ancestors. The account of ibrahim shows Muslims the high moral standards he reached and the importance of learning from his life and faith.
SOA: ‘He was thankful for the blessings of God who chose him and guided him to a straight path’ (Quran Surah 16: 120-122)


Ismail is ibrahims son and was also a prophet. Muslims believe ibrahim and Ismail were chosen to rebuild the Kabah in Makkah. Through his story of the sacrifice, Muslims are taught to always trust and put Allah first. This event is remembered at Eid up adha

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Musa was the main founder of Judaism. Muslims believe that Musa was appointed by Allah to free Israelis from slavery under the harsh rule of firawn, For Muslims Musas life is an example of how God rewards perseverance in the face of suffereing and how good will overcome evil.


Dawud was one of the messengers. He is remembered for his wisdom, prayers and fasting. For Muslims Dawuds life confirms that Allah vies honour to his chosen ones and they can be blessed both wordly an spiritually.


Isa is among the honoured prophets of Allah , which was one of the most important revelations before the Quran. Isas many miracles are described in the Quran including his birth, creating birds from clay and bringing the death back to life. The Quran rejects the idea of isa being the son of god. Muslims are taught about isa being a prophet that honoured Tawhid.

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Muhammad is the last prophet sent by God. Muslims believe he was the only prophet that was given the universal message that was meant for all times. He is described in the Quran as ‘the seal of prophets’ meaning that the quantities of all the Messangers are found within him. This teaches Muslims they have been given the final guidance for humanity and that by following the example of Muhammad they will please Allah.
SOA: ‘bless him too and give him greetings of peace’ (Quran Surah 33: 56)


Risalah refers to the meaning of communication between Allah and people through many thousands of people

Messenger are given task of passing on Allahs guidance to humanity

Adam, Ibrahim, Ismail, Isa, Musa, Dawud and Muhammad are some of the prophets mentioned in the Quran.

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Angels are created by Allah and perform various tasks from Allah. Unlike humans, angles have no free will and can only obey the commands of Allah. Angles are believed to help those whose faith is strong: ‘Take the straight path towards him, the angles come down to them’. Allah has created numerous angles which each have a specific role in Islam. Some angles such as jibril, mikil, izrail, are considered as higher ranked angles.


Izrail is referred to as the angel of death in the Quran, e is not referenced to by name by that does not lessen his importance. As the angel of death he has the job for taking the soul of every person and returning it to Allah. However muslims believe only God knows the time of everyone’s death.

SOA’ The angel of death put in charge of you will reclaim you and then you will be brought back to your Lord’
SOA - ‘angels are “honoured servants”

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Mikail has the job to maintain life. He is believed to have been in charge of plants and rain. Also to provide the soul with food. Mikail is mentioned by name is the Quran ‘If anyone is an enemy of God, his angels and his messengers of jibril, mikail, then God is certainly the enemy of such disbelievers.’


Jibril has a very important role, when Allah wants to communicate with the prophets he does this through jibril, It was jibril who said ‘we only descen with revelation at your lords command’. Jibril delivered the whole Quran to prophet Muhammad over a period of 23 years starting with the first revelation (Iqra) which means read.

Belief in angels is the 2 most important pillar of faith, also in the Quran it mentions that on everyone’s shoulders there are two angels, one on the right who takes down our good deeds an one on the left that takes down our bad deeds. This means we are under observation 24/7 by angels and God seeing what we do.

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Muslims believe that our physical life will come to an end and we will be raised again called Akirah. Muslims believe in a physical resurrection, this is why muslims bury the body fully. Muslims believe that the soul is immortal. After death the angel of death will take your soul up to the heavens and it will be returned back. The soul is taken to barzakh which is the life of the grave. And this is the stage of death and the day of judgement. Muslims believe that each person will be judged for everything they do. If Allah is pleased with a person they will enter jannah, however if he is not pleased with a person they will enter jahanam


Jannah is described in the Quran as a beautiful place: ‘what a blessed reward, what a pleasant resting place’.


Janhanam is a place of pain and suffereing :’The fire will scorch their faces and their lips will be twisted in pain’

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Al Qadar

Allah has knowledge of everything that has been and will be. Everthing that happens is decreed by Allah. Muslims believe all suffereing is accepted as god’s plan and eventually there will be a good outcome. Belifs In predestination is important to muslims for serveal reasons as it affirms Allahs omnipotence and his capacity to know everything that there is to know. The laws governing the universe are designed for the benefits of humanity. Allahs knowledge of all things helps muslims to understand that everything happens for a reason and is part Allahs plan.

SOA - ‘every human being is free to choose between good and evil. However, in relation to religion there are some spheres of density which are predetermined and unchangble.
SOA: In the Quran it states ‘ in all things the master planning is god’ ,meaning god has planned everything.

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Al Qadar Sunni/Shia View

As a Sunni Al Qadar is one of the main beliefs. They believe that this life is a test and that every action will be weighed on the day of judgement. They believe that al Qadar is important as this is when god will judge what we have done in this life and how we have made him pleased. They believe that Allah knows how we will decide. We decide what to do but Allah knows what we will do before we actually do it.

As a Shia al Qadar is how they understand the world around them, that everything is not available in our existence. However they reject the idea of al Qadar, they believe that god has control everything we do, but may decide to change his plan and path for us whenever he wants.

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Akirah SOA

SOA - ‘Does man think that we cannot assemble his bones? Nay we are able to put together in perfect order the very tip of his fingers (Quran)

This source is teaching humans that everybody will be resurrected in a perfect way

SOA - ‘Therefore do I warn you of a fire blazing fiercely: none shall reach it but those most unfortunate ones who gave the truth and turn their backs. But those most devoted to Allah shall be removed far from it (Quran)

This source is teaching humans that those who follow the truth will be protected and rewarded.

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Akirah Beliefs

Muslims belief that those who do good in this life will enter jannah. In the Quran it states that ‘paradise is seen as a place of beauty’ which means only those who do good enter jannah

Muslims also believe that those who do bad in this life will entere jahanam, the Quran describes hell as ‘a place of torment and discomfort’, which means those who reject the truth will be punished

SOA - ‘what a blessed reward, what a pleasant resting place’

SOA - ‘fire will scorch their faces and their lips will be twisted in pain’

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Akirah Importance

Muslims believe in the day of judgement which is one of the 6 pillars of faith therefore this is highly significant . Muslims pray to be given a good after life

SOA- ‘grant us good things in this world and in the life to come’

Belief in akirah affects how a Muslim lives and treats others because they know that they will be judged.

SOA - ‘but no one will be wronged in the least’

This verse explains that justice will be served in akirah and a Muslim will strive to follow the Quran, sunnah and Hadith of the prophet to the best of their ability so they will be judged favourably. The promise of paradise for good deeds offered muslims hope fo a better afterlife

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Al Qadar

Predestination is imprortant to Muslims:

Allah knows everything that happens in the universe, he has created it, Allah has established many ‘laws’ of nature that are beyond human control- these are predetermined, Humans have been give freedom and can choose to do certain things - this is part of Allahs plan, Nothing happens without Allahs permission, Human intentions and actions such as prayer can impact Allahs will

Al Qadar is one of the 6 beliefs of Sunni muslims and also has importance for Shia muslims therefore Islam is not complete without it
Believing in al Qadar means that a muslims trust god and Allah has control of everything in the universe

Al Qadar has close connection with akirah
Muslims are reminded of Allahs omniscience. This means he knows what has happened, is happenening and will happen. Muslims must therefore be prepared to answer for their deeds in the next life.

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6 Articles of Faith

Belief in Allah - this is the most important belief for Muslims. Allah is the supreme,

Belief in the angels of Allah - Angels are heavenly beings created by Allah to perform various tasks such as delivering messages to people (Prophets)

Belief in the books of Allah - Muslims believe that Allahs messages are contained in holy texts know as kutubullah , or books of Allah. These include sahifah (scrolls), tawrat (Torah), Zabur (psalms), Injil (Gospels) and finally the Quran.

Belief in the messengers of Allah - a messenger or prophet is a person chosen by God to teach and guide people to the right path.

Belief in the day of judgement - The Quran teaches that eventually the entire universe will end. The dead will be ressurrected and accounts will be taken of their deeds. Allah will decide whether people go to jannah or janhannam

Belief in the decree of Allah - muslims believe in al Qadar. Allah has the overall power and he has given us free will, making us responsible for our destiny.

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Key Words

Tawhid - Belief in 1 god

Benevolence - Gods kindness

Immanence - God is here with us

Trancendence - God is above everything

Predestination - The belief that everything that happens is planned by God

Decree - Offical order fom god

Inshallah - god willing

Hadith - Sayings of the prophet muhammad

Khalifah - a religious leader representing Allah or a prophet

Adalat - Divine Justice

Miad - The day of judgement and the resurrection

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Nature of God Summary

Muslims believe that Allah has many characteristics including Tawhid, immanence, transcendence, omnipotence, beneficence, mercy, fairness, and justice

The names of Allah tell muslims something about his nature, but it is impossible to understand him fully

Allahs characteristics are important because they can help muslims to worship and aspire to be a reflection of him

Possible exam questions

B question
Explain two reasons why the characteristics of Allah are important for muslims (4)

C question
Explain two Muslim beliefs about Allah , use SOA (5)

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Risalah Summary

Risalah refers to the means of communication between Allah and people though many thounds of prophets

Messengers are given the task of passing on Allahs guidance to humanity

Adam,Ibrahim, Ismail, Musa, Dawud, isa and muhammad are examples of prophets mentioned in the Quran

Possible exam questions

A Question
Outline 3 things that muslims believe about risalah (3)

B Question
Explain two reasons why muhammad is an important prophet in Islam (4)

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Holy Books Summary

Muslims believe many holy books originally from Allah were for particular societies at particular times

Muslims believe that prior to the Quran, holy scriptures were changed or lot and so needed replacing

The Quran is believed by muslims to be the final and perfect revelation for all times, people and places

Possible exam questions

B Question
Explain two muslims attitudes to holy books (4)

D Question
“All Muslim holy books are quality important” Evaluate this stamennt (15)

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Malaikah Summary

Muslims believe malaikah are heavenly beings created by Allah to perform various tasks

Important angels include jibril, mikail and izrail

The Quran says that angels record every persons god and bad actions, which helps decide their the. This makes them highly significant to muslims today

Possible exam questions

C Question
Explain two reasons why jibril is important to muslims using SOA (5)

D Question
‘Angels have no relevance today” Evaluate the statement (150)

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Al Qadar Summary

Al Qadar means predestination and is one of the 6 beliefs of Sunni muslims

Muslims believe that there are laws that Allah has determined and fixed in the universe

Humans have also been given free will, allowing them to make certain choices which they will be accountable for on the day of judgement

Possible exam questions

B Question
Explain two reasons why predestination is an important belief for muslims (4)

D Question
‘Al - Qadar and human freedom re incompatible’ Evaluate this statement (15)

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Akirah Summary

Muslims believe that all human will be judged in the afterlife

Every person will enter either paradise or hell, based on how they have lived their life

Some muslims consider resurrection to be physical and spiritual, while others believe it is only spiritual and that souls will be provided with new bodies in the afterlife.

Possible exam questions

B Question
Describe two differences between Islam and main religious traditions of Great Britain about the beliefs of heaven and hell (4)

D Question
‘If there is no akirah, religious teachings are meaningless’ Evaluate the statement (15)

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Sources of Authority


Quran says there is only one god. It is the word of god and it should be followed


God is described as the mot powerful in the Quran. It is the word of God and should be followed

Beneficence and Mercy

The prophet said in many Hadith that God forgives those who have good intentions.


Sharia law tells us how to behave, it is an authority so muslims should follow the rules

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Sources of Authority


SOA : ‘We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Ismail, Issac Jacob and that given to all prophets from their lord’
-Believe in god and his message
-Which he has given to mankind
-The message for us is the same message given to all prophets


SOA : Angels are “Honoured servnats”

SOA: Quaran states jibril gave the message to muhammad and other prophets
SOA: Quran states that Allah hears our prayers and guides us to the truth

Al Qadar

SOA : ‘In all things the master planning is god’
-God has planned everything
-All suffereing is accepted as Gods plan and eventually there will be a good outcome

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Key Words

Beneficence - Kindness

Sin - an action against Allahs will

Humanity - All human beings

Risalah - the system of communication between Allah and people through prophets

Scripture - Holy book of text given by Allah through a prophet

Akirah - Life after death when day of judgement takes place

Al Qadar - predestination belief that all has planned everything

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Sources of Authority


Quran states that his nature is beyond our own understanding. He is the supreme.


Quran says god is closer than your jugular vein, meaning he is closer than our skin

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