1.1 Trinity

The Father is God "Our Father who art in heaven" (Matthew)

The Holy Spirit is God "the spirit of God desecending like a dove" (Matthew)

The Son is God "The Word became flesh" (John)

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The Oneness of God

"Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is our Lord" (Mark)

"I and My Father are one" (John)

"For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy spirit; and these three are one." (John)

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Trinity in Catholic worship today

Baptism: performed in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.


  • When the eucharist prayer, "Lord be with you... and with you spirit" also gives thanks to God.
  • Son present in the consecrated bread and wine, through the Holy Spirit
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1.2 Trinity in Bible

Doctrine: a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a Church

Niene creed: the declaration of faith, which was written down in 381CE. The trinity is included because it's an important part of the declaration

I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth [...]

I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages [...]

I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceeds from the Father and the Son [...]

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Jesus' baptism

"The Spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him; and lo, a voice form heaven, saying, "This is my beloved son" (Matthew)

       = God the Holy Spirit           = God the Father          = God the Son

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1.3 Creation

The story of Creation is in Genesis

  • Day 1: God made the Heavens, earth, light, dark
  • Day 2: He created the sky and water
  • Day 3: Made land and vegetation (plants and trees)
  • Day 4: He created the sun, moon, stars and to govern and separate the day and the night.
  • Day 5: Created fish, birds
  • Day 6: God created the animals to fill the earth. On day six, God also created man and woman (Adam and Eve) in his own image to commune with him.
  • Day 7: God had finished his work of creation and so he rested on the seventh day, blessing it and making it holy.
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Significance of the Creation account for Catholics

Reveals key charactistics of God:

  • God as Creator: "Let there be light" (Genesis)
  • God as omnibenevolent (loving and good): "God saw that the light was good" (Genesis)
  • God as omnipotent (all powerful): "Let the water..be gathered..and let the dry land appear." (Genesis)
  • God as eternal: "In the beginning was the Word" (John) 
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1.4 Creation and nature of Humanity

Humanity is created in the image of God

  • "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion" (Genesis)
  • "God created man a rational being" CCC 1730

      = free will 

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1.5 Incarnation

Jesus as incarnate son: "The Word became Flesh and dwelt among us" (John)

Fully human:

  • Born of Mary (Luke)
  • Died on the cross (Matthew)
  • Cried at friend's death (John)

Fully God:

  • Mary was a virgin (Matthew)
  • healed people like the paralysed man (Matthew)
  • "My words will not pass away (Matthew)
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Issues with Sabbath and Law

Jewish authorities believed Jesus was falsely claiming to be God .e.g.

  • Healing and forgiving paralysed man- Jewish people believed only God could forgive sins (Matthew)
  • He allowed his disciples to pick corn on the Sabbath- considered to be work- when they were hungry (Matthew)
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1.6 Paschal Mystery

"..just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many."(Matthew) ---> The son of man (Jesus) came to serve us and to redeem us.

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What does Catholic Church teach?

Why did the "Word become flesh"?

  • To save (CCC457)
  • To know God's love (CCC459)
  • To share the grace of God (2 Peter)

Why did Jesus die?

  • To show how to respond to cruelty, "Father, forgive them" (Luke)

Why is the resurrection so important?

  • To prove Jesus is God "He is not here; He has risen" (Matthew)<-- only God can conquer death
  • It's a present event "I am with you always" (Matthew)
  • "I am the resurrection and the life.." (John)
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1.7 The significance of the Paschal Mystery

If individuals accept the offer of salvation, this does not mean they have saved themselves; they have accepted that Jesus has saved them from sin through his sacrifice.

"For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him." (John)

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1.8 Eschatology

Life after death:

  • "I am the resurrection and the life.." (John)
  • Jesus referred to eternal life in his teaching, saying there would be a reward for those who had pleased God. This was also made clear by St Paul: "For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each of us may receive what is due us for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad." (2 Corinthians)
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What is Judgment?

Particular judgment: After death a person will go to heaven. purgatory, or hell

General or Last judgment: This is at the end of time. Everyone, living and dead, will be resurrected and a final and eternal judgement will take place. 

"Just as people are destined to die once, and after that to face judgment," (Hebrews)

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What are heaven, hell, and purgatory?


  • Eternal life with God; a life of love and indescribable joy (CCC1027)
  • "Your reward is great in heaven" (Matthew)


  • “Thus he made atonement for the dead that they might be freed from sin.” (2 Maccabees 12:46)
  • A stage of purification (CCC1030)


  • "Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life."(Matthew)
  • "This is the second death." (Revelation)
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What is the nature of resurrection?

The Catholic church teaches that resurrection is when a person's soul is reunited with their 'glorified' body (CCC997)

The church states that only God knows how resurrection will happen; not everything can be explained (CCC268)

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2.1 The sacramental nature of reality

  • A religious ritual performed in the life of the church that makes people into holiness.

Catholic church teaches that a sacrament is: 

"An outward sign of an inward gift, instituted by christ, in order to give grace to a human being."

           = visible or accessible to the senses

           = The catholic church believes Christ introduced the seven sacraments

           = God's life, presence, or holiness 

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Sacrament of Initiation


"Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptising them..." (Matthew)

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Sacrament of Initiation


"the Holy Spirit, whom the father will send in my name he will teach you all things" (John)

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Sacrament of Initiation


"This is my body...This is my blood" (Mark)

"The source and summit of the Christian life" (CCC1324) 

"Sacrament of sacraments"

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Sacrament of Healing


"Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained" (John)

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Sacrament of Healing

Anointing of the sick:

The disciples "cast out many demons, and anointed with oil many that were sick and healed them". (Mark)

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Sacrament of Vocation


"So they are no longer two but one. What therefore God has joined togther, let not man put asunder" (Matthew)

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Sacrament of Vocation

Holy Orders:

"Do this in remembrance of me" (Luke)

"he appointed twelve, to be with him, and to be sent out to preach" (Mark)

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Is it a sacrament?

Catholic and Orthodox: All seven sacraments- yes

Most Protestant Christians (Church of England, Pentecost): Only Baptism and Eucharist- yes

Some Protestant (Salvation Army): None of the seven sacraments are sacraments because they are not a communicaton of God's grace, but rather they are expressions of faith.

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2.2 Liturgical Worship

  • structured, public service of worship
  • set out by the Catholic church
  • helps catholics grow in holiness and be saved from sin 
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What is the Mass?

  • Central act of worship 
  • is celebrated nearly everyday in catholic church
  • catholics are expected to attend Mass weekly
  • there are 4 main parts in Mass. 
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Introductory Rites

  • come together as a community to worship God
  • Call to mind sins and ask forgiveness in preparation for receiving the Eucharist 
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Liturgy of the Word

  • Readings from the old testaments including the Gospels
  • Homily (commentary on the meaning of God's Word)
  • Nicene Creed 
  • Prayers of Intercession 
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Liturgy of the Eucharist

  • Meeting Jesus 
  • Bread and wine are brought to the alter 
  • Eucharistic prayer transforms these by the power of the Holy Spirt
  • This becomes the actual body and blood of Jesus (transubstantiation) 
  • Received by the congregation

The place of the Eucharist: Christians have gathered and broken bread in Jesus' name.

Lumen Gentium makes it clear that consuming the Eucharist:

  • makes individuals part of Jesus' body, the Church 
  • makes Catholics part of one another
  • creates the Church, the Body of Christ.

"...in the breakiung of the Eucharistic bread, we are taken up into communion with Him and with one another." (Lumen Gentium)

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Concluding Rites

  • The priest greets, blesses, and sends out the people to build the kingdom of god.

Divergent views: All Christians groups recognise the importance of God's Word in the Bible and sharing that in community. 

Catholic Mass: structured, order, signs and symbols link back to Apostolic Tradition, Transubstantiation

Some protestant Eucharistic service: similar structure to Catholic Mass, Eucharist is important but doesn't have same meaning .i.e. the bread and wine are symbolic

Other protestant Eucharistic service: is symbolic, less structured worship- which many believe is important for a less restricted connection with God, May include spontaneous involvement from members, varied music

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2.3 Funeral Rite

  • is a liturgy
  • formal practices set out by the Church
  • although sorrowful, a catholic funeral is also seen as a celebration because the individual has begun their journey to eternal life
  • There are 3 stages 
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Vigil of the Deceased

  • The word “vigil” means to keep watch. 
  • The Christian community keeps watch with the family as they mourn the loss of a loved one. 
  • The gathering of friends and church members offer prayers for the deceased and his/her relatives. 
  • The vigil calls on God to receive the deceased into the eternal kingdom of heaven. 
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Funeral Liturgy or Mass

  • decision between mass or liturgy of the word
  • in the mass eucharist is celebtared but in the liturgy of the word, it is not 
  • The priest will choose readings from the bible which focus on the mystery of death and the deceased person's life of faith in Jesus.  
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Rite of Committal and Commendation/Farewell

  • People say their goodbyes with hope in their heart that they will meet again in the next life.

"Our great hope is that we will be redeemed from death by Christ's great victory" (Vincent Nichols)

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Aims of the Funeral Rite

Communion with the deceased: to support the deceased person in their journey into the next life with efficacious prayer (prayer to help and encourage the deceased person). Significance: Catholics are reassured that they can support the deceased after death, and forgive then for any wrongdoing. 

Communion of the community: to show how the people gathered are still connected to the deceased person in the Church, the Body of Christ. Significance: Catholics are reassured they remain in connection with one another through prayer and the Eucharist. 

Proclamation of eternal life to the community: to remind people that death is not the end of life but the passage from this world to life with God. Significance: Catholics are given hope for the future and can refocus on their own life and priorities.

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2.4 Prayer

"The rising of one's mind and heart to God" (CCC2559) It can be:

  • private or public
  • carried out sliently
  • carried out alone or with others
  • speaking to God or listening to God
  • Formal (tradition) or extempore/informal prayer (own words)
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Types of Prayer

  • Adoration: God is God .e.g. Glory Be 
  • Repentance: Confessing sins and asking for forgiveness
  • Thanksgiving: Thank God for what he has done, expressing love and gratitude
  • Intercession: Praying on the behalf of others
  • Petition: Asking God for your own personal needs 

Why is it important to have different types of prayer?

  •  different stages of life
  • different needs and moments- sometimes private, other times public
  • different locations 
  • different moods or feelings 
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Lord's Prayer

"Our Father.." (Matthew)

  • is believed by Catholics to be "the most perfect of prayers" (CCC2763
  • reminds Catholics to honour God, to ask for what they need each day, and to repent and forgive others
  • unites all Christians and states key Christians beliefs. 
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2.5 Forms of popular piety

  • is worship that does not follow a strict pattern set out by the church (it's non-liturgical)
  • The Catechism supports both worship, but popular piety should not replace Church liturgy: 

"These expressions of piety extend the liturgical life of the Church, but do not replace it" (CCC1675)

" the religious sense of the Christian people has always found expression in the various forms of piety... the stations of the cross, religious dances, the rosary, medals, etc" (CCC1674)


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  • Used anywhere
  • The person will pray focusing on the 'Mysteries of the Rosary', which are key events in jesus' life.
  • reminds Catholics of what Christ has done for them 
  • brings comfort and identity as a Catholic
  • Beads help the person count the prayers


  • Meditation on the grace of God, focus on different parts of Jesus' life, honouring Mary.

The Catechism teaches that praying the rosary is important because it helps Catholics to meditate on the work of Christ.

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Stations of the Cross


  • 14 stations around the walls of the catholic church honour the suffering and death of Jesus
  • People move between them with different prayers, meditations, and reflections

Significance, Catholics celebrate the stations because it helps them: 

  • identify with the sufferings of Jesus
  • pray through the journey of jesus to the cross
  • remember the cost of the salvation Jesus brought
  • give thanks for what Jesus did for them.
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Eucharistic Adoration


  • Adoration in front of the Blessed Sacrament 
  • Usually placed in a monstrance
  • performed when the Eucharist is exposed for viewing 
  • Many Catholics perform it for the holy hour


  • Focusing of Prayer 
  • helps the worshipper to make contact with the presence of Christ
  • is a way of honouring and adoring Christ
  • helps to cancel out the world's evils and bring world peace
  • follows the example of the pope 

Catechism teaches that adoration of the Blessed Sacrament stimulates the faithful to an awareness of the marvellous presence of Christ and encourages spiritual communion with him 

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Divergent Views and Importance to have different t

Protestant Christians do not:

  • pray the Rosary because they will not have anything to do with adoration of the Virgin Mark- they believe she was an ordinary woman and do not accept the assumption or immaculate conception.
  • practise Eucharistic adoration because they do not believe in transubstantiation
  • follow the Station of the Cross because they are not all based on the bible


  • Different ways of doing the same thing: connecting Catholics to God through prayer
  • Certain forms focus more on praying in community, others on praying individually 


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2.6 Pilgrimage

  • is a journey to a special place of religious significance, its is usually connected to the lives of Jesus, Mary, apostles, or saints
  • EXAMPLES: Lourdes, Rome, Walsingham, and Jerusalem 

Life of jesus- Holy Land: Pray at sites important in Jesus' life, understand Gospel better.

Mary- Lourdes: Places where Mary appeared, place of healing, miracles happen

Disciples- Rome: Chance to meet the pope, walk where disciples walked before

Walsingham: not that far away in uk, brings people of different Christian denominations together 

"Pilgrimages evoke our earthly journey toward heaven and are traditionally very special occasions for renewal in prayer" (CCC2691)

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Why pilgrimage is important..? and Divergent Views

  • Provides time and space for prayer
  • Connection to other Christians 
  • Allows Christians to 'journey' closer to God.
  • Response to busy life and world 
  • Strengthen faith 

Diverhent views: 

  • Protestant denominations do not place as much emphasis on pilgirmage as it is not considered by them to be a central Christian life.
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2.7 Catholic Social Teaching

"Love your neighbour as yourself" (Mark)

1. Sacredness of life and the dignity of then human person 

2. Call to family, community, and participation

3. Human rights and the responsibility to protect them 

4. Preferential option for the poor and vulnerable

5. Dignity of work and the rights of workers

6. Solidarity with all people as one family 

7. Stewardship and care for God's creation 

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Justice, peace, and reconciliation

Catholic Social Teaching is concerned with how society should provide: Justice, Peace, Reconiliation

"The mere fact that some people are born in places with fewer resources or less development doesnot justify the fact that they are living with less dignity" (Evangelli Gaudium)

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Actions of Catholics

They can show love of neighbour through: Corporal (feeding the hungry, sheltering the homeless, visiting the sick) or spiritual (forgiving, comforting the sorrowful, praying for people) works of mercy.

"Truly I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of my brethren, you did it to me." (Matthew)


  • Rooted in the Catholic community
  • global neighnours fighting injustice and poverty
  • working for social justice
  • Raising awareness and educating Catholics
  • Gives short-term or emergency aid
  • Helping people to help themselves  
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2.8 Catholic mission and evangelism

Mission is the idea that a person is sent to others to help them, or bring them something of benefit.

Evangelism is to proclaim and live out the Gospel 

For Catholics evangelism doesn't mean trying to convert people to the Christian faith, but instead it is about sharing and living out a message.

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Enagement in the new evangelisation


  • Individual Catholics- through career, as a catechist
  • Church- newspapers, charitable work, social events, Mass


  • Individual- attending national events
  • Church- Bishop's Conference through its various departments shares the Gospel


  • Individual- attending global gatherings, social media
  • Church- through the pope, international charities(CAFOD), radio 

Traditional Evangelism: Missionary work by travelling the world to spread the Gospel in their own words and actions. The Catholic church still plays a vitsl role around the world

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