Rapid Population Growth

Unit 2 - population change

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About the Policy

China has a population of over 1.3 billion. 

"One Child Policy" introduced in 1979. 

Couples were encouraged to have only one child, couples who did recieved benefits such as longer maternity leave, better housing and free education for the child. 

Couples who had a second child recieved no benefits and were fined part of their income. 

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The policy changed over the years...

In some rural areas couples were allowed to have a second child if the first was a girl or had a physical disability. This is because children are needed to work on farms. 

Couples were also allowed a second child if one of the parents has a disability or if both parents were only children. This is so there are enough children to look after parents. 

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Was the policy successful?

The policy prevented 400 million births. 

The fertility rate dropped from 5.7 in 1970 to 1.8 today. 


The policy caused little emperor syndrome, and a generation of spoilt children was created, due to parents and grandparents having only one child to spoil. 

Boys were preferable so many baby girls were aborted or even abonded and left to die. 

The policy caused women to have babies aborted as late as nine months. 

Granny police were created to spy on couples. 

Female Infanticide occured as there were too many boys and not enough girls. 

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Indonesia is made up of thousands of Islands and has the fourth lagest population in the world - over 240 million. 

The population isn't evenly distributed with 130 million people living on the island of Java. 

This has led to social and economic problems, such as a lack of adequate services and housing, increased unemployment and poverty. 

The Indonesian Government set up a policy in the 1960s called "Transmigration Policy".

It's aim was to make the poulation more evenly distributed by moving people from densely populated islands like Java to less densley populated islands like Sumatra. 

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Was it successful?

Millions have been moved, but the population still isn't evenly distributed. 

Not all people who moved escaped poverty - either they didn't have the skills to farm the land or the land was too poor to be farmed. 

Lots of people were moved to land that was already occupied by native people, this caused conflict between the natives and the migrants, creating a series of new problems for the government. 

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