Raine Study On NGRI's (1997)
Raine (1997) wanted to see if there was a difference in brain activities in murdering NGRI's and normal murderers.
He looked at:
- Parietal - Sensory information and movement.
- Pre-Frontal - Emotions & Memory.
- Temporal - Language & Hearing.
- Occipital - Sight.
- Hippocampus - Learning & Memory.
- Amygdala - Emotions.
- Corpus Collosum - Connection Betweeen The Two Hemispheres.
He had 41 NGRI's, 6 were schitzophrenic, had epileptic people and some were brain damaged.
There were also a control group that had the same problems but were not murderers.
They were matched together in groups; by age, handedness, sex, IQ.
+ves & -ves.
He found that...
-Parietal - Less activity
- Pre-Frontal - Less activity
- Temporal - Same activity
- Occipital - More activity
- Hippocampus - Less activity
- Amygdala - Less activity
- Corpus Collosum - Less activity
- Cerebellum - Less activity
Less activity in processing emotions, language, communication and guilt.
- Used pet scans; high credibility in scientific community.
- Well matches - sex, age, handedness, IQ.
- high reliability, so reproducable.
- Results lead to treatment of schizophrania.
- Pet scans in them days were'nt 100% reliable, as they were still been researched.
- Not ethically sound, no informed consent can be given from insane participants.
- Lack of generalisability; not all criminals violent.
- Other factors may be taken into account (social)
- Task done to test brain has no reference to violent activity.