What is 'affirmative action'?
-first used by President Kennedy
-It refers to the practice of taking firm & positive action to redress wrongs in terms of discrimination, especially in employment and education.
-Kennedy and Johnson saw AA as making sure that individuals and organisations were prevented from deliberately disrciminatory policies when it came to things like employment and education.
What are advocating quotas?
-a step further from affitmative action by Nixon
-It targets that people should adhere to, to make sure that minorities had equal opportunities, and were employed in fair numbers.
-became clear in his 'Philadelphia Plan', where federal contracts depended on certain numbers of minortieis being employed, or being allowed on courses or being provided housing..etc.
What is 'compensatory action'?
-After advocating quotas
- seeking to redress the balance in matters like jobs and schools
What was the Swann vs Charlotte Mecklenberg 1971 c
-Suprememe Court was a part of this case in such as Swann vs Charlotte Mecklenberg 1971: when it ordered bussing to take place in school districts where segregation had developed.
- the problem was that the practice in some states had developed de facto: gradually over a period of time.
-it wasnt been as a result of de jure segregation: cause by a deliberate decision, and to many, subjecting more natural de facto circumstances to control like this seemed especially wrong.