History Revision Cards: Race Relations 1945-68


Racial Inequality in the USA Prior to WW2

Attitudes to blacks formed during the ear of slavery meant most blacks viewed as stupid, lazy and untrustworthy. These views resulted in a social situation were the Whites wre the HAVEs and the Blacks the HAVE NOTs 

Emancipation Proclamation, New Years Day 1866 - signed by Abraham Lincoln gave freedom to slaves but not equality

The Ku Klux Klan was formed in 1866 and the Jim Crow laws meant equality was a long way off

In the south the KKK lynched and terrorised blacks. Jim Crow laws discriminated against blacks. Local authorites insited they pass certain tests to be able to vote e.g. Literacy tests which many couldntpass due to the lack of an education. Most blacks were legally prevented from voting or sitting on juries

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Impact of WW2: Part 1

African Americans in the Armed Forces


  • Black soilders usually served in Black-only units with a white officer 
  • It wasnt until 1944 that marines allowed black soilders into combat before had been transporting supplies or cooks or labourers  known as "mules"
  • Many Black women served as nurses though only allowed to tend black soilders 
  • A rail company resturant once refused to serve the black americans but would serve the white german prisoners they were guarding
  • Black soilders given more dangerous jobs on boats e.g. loading ammunition
  • In July 1944 horrific accident killed 323 people most of which black at Chicagos Port
  • Only 58 black navy officers
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Impact of WW2: Part 2


  • From 1944 there were hundreds of black officers in the army and marines
  • US Supreme Commander general Eisenhower strongly supported intergrated combat
  • Intergrated Combat Units
  • 600 black pilots by the end of the war 
  • Fighter squadrons of black only pilots e.g. 332nd Fighter Group 
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Impact of WW2; Part 3

African Americans in the Workplace


  • Over 400,000 Black Americans migrated North or West to the industrial cities, where their wages on average doubled to about $1000 a year
  • They wre paid more and could aquire skills for specific jobs
  • In June 1941, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802 ordering employers of defence work to end discrimination in the work place


  • Black leaders led by Philip Randolf threatened a mass march of 50,000on washington to end discrimination at work
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Impact of WW2: Part 2


  • Poor black and white  workers created racial tension 
  • Race Riots in 47 cities the worst in Detroit
  • Black workers usually earned 1/2 of what white workers earned
  • In 1942, at Packard electronics company, 3000 white workers walked out when three black workers were promoted
  • Many white workers what they saw as blacks taking their jobs and moving into  their neighbourhoods
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Impact of WW2: Growth of Black Activism

In 1942 James Farmer a christian Socialist founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). This group organised sit-ins in segregated resturants and insited mebers sit in white seats on intersate buses.

In 1909 the National Association for the advanceement of Coloured People(NAACP) was set up. During1930s it conducted a campaign against lynchings. One Balck NAACP lawyer, Charles Houston, trained an elite team of black lawyers who challenged segregation laws in court. Lawyers won number of rights for African Americans e.g. postgraduate education and right to sit on juries. Membership of NAACP grew during war by 1945 it had 450,000 members

After fighting in war many felt they had earned equality e.g. one ex corporal said "I went into the Army a n$gger; I'm coming out a man"

Though when they returned still not equal had lowest paid jobs and lowest standards of education . Most soilders came home to find themswelves unemployed and called 'boy'. In south Black soilders who question place in society where beaten and even murdered

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Segregation and Attitudes in the South

  • Jim Crow Laws or segregation laws kept racial basis legally in the southern states from 1876 to 1965
  • Black and white Americans were sgreagted in publics schools, public places and on public transport
  • The 'Black Codes' limited civil liberties and right, including laws which made it impossible for Black Ameriacns to vote such as a poll tax ($16.50) that they couldnt afford to pay and literacy tests marked by whites who would always fail them
  • Jim Crow law tested in1896 when Homer Plessy was convicted in Louisaina for riding in a whte only rail car. Plessy took his case to Supreme Court wherehe lost as they ruled it was leag las long as facilites kept seperate but equal. Only one Justice John Harlem disagreed with the decision 
  • Jim crow laws often tried to hide cruelty but cliaming to provide seperate but equal faciltie but this was a falsehood as the black schools , libaries e.t.c where often i much poorer condtions
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Segregation and Attitudes in the South: Part 2

In 1950s racism still an everyday occurence in the south for example;

  • 17 states fully enforced Jim Crow laws
  • Black Americans had offically been given the right to vote but various practices were used to prevent them most commonly violence. In Mississippi who tried to register to vote faced intimidation or even lynching only 5% of the black population there was registered to vote
  • Law officers not only failed to stop attacks on black americans but frequently took part in them
  • White Juries almost always aquited white americans accused of killing Black americans
  • Black Americans face offical and legal discrimination such as employment and education. In the south white teachers earned 30% more than black teachers
  • The best Universities wre closed to black people. In 1958, a black teacher called Clemson King was commited to a mental asylum for appling to Mississippi University 
  • many white buissness men and individuals created their own Jim-Crow type rules. Meant blacks found it hard to buy houses in certain area s or work at certain companies 
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Segregation and Attitudes in the South: Part 3

In early 1950s NAACP concentrated on ending segreagtion on buses and trins. In 1952 segregation on inter-state railways was decleared un constituion al by the Supreme Court, this was followed by a similar judgement concerning inter-state buses . However states in south contiuned their own policy of transport segreagation whites at fron tblacks at back and blacks had to give up their seat to any white person

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The Ku Klux Klan: The Story

The KKK was a white supremacy movemnet founded in 1866 by soilders from the Confederate Army in six southern states. Its purpose was to maintain slavery, gain drevenge for the loss of the civil war on the northern states and make sure Black americans would not become equal citizens in the southern states at least. Violence was their main form of intimadtion. In 1910 alone 67 Black Americans had been lynched. In 1915 the film the Birth of a Nation was released. It was set in 1860s, just after the civil war. It glorified the Klan as defenders of decent American values against renegade black people and corrupt white buissnessmen. The KKK resulted in many Black americans moving north with the population of both New York ( 150,000 to 330,000) and Chicago (110,000 to 230,000) doubling. By 1924 the KK had 4.5 million members. In 1925 the Klan declined after one of its leaders Grand wizard David Stephson, was convicted of a vicious sexually motivated murder. he turned informer and the corruption of the Klan became common knowledge. In the 1950s klan groups re-established to hallenge civil rights. Houses were bombed, people intimedated and even assainated. In Atlanta over 40 homes were bombed between 1951-52. many murders were never reported. As juries were mostly white only Blacks didnt expect a vote in their favour. Klansman had close links with police and goverment and used them to continue intimidation

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The Ku Klux Klan: The Lynchings

Lynchings would usually happen outside in a large public place. It was a family affair with not just men attending but often their children and wives as well. The lynchings were usually lead by the KKK burning crosses were often carried by members of the crowd. They would sometimes break into jail and drag out the black men. The blac men would ben beaten most oftemn whipped sometimes with branches. Young teens often got involved bitting and scratching the man. With a large crowd sometimes ten to fifteen thousand chanting "******" and callign for death. The man would be strung up most likely to a tree and left to die

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The Ku Klux Klan: Emmett Till

In 1955 Emmett Till, a 14 year old black boy from Chicago was mrdered during a visit to his Great-Uncle in Mississppi after he whisteled at a white female shopkeeper. Three days later his body was found, he had been shot in ythe head beaten and mutilated until he was almost unrecognisable. Emmets Great-Aunt ignored the KKK threats and identified the womans husband,Rob Bryant as the abductor. It took a jury ony two hours to find him not guilty of kidnap or murder. Two Months later Rob Bryant admitted in an interview to killing Emmet in an interview with Look Magazine fow whcih he was paid $4000 but he stayed free until his death due to double jeporday laws

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Brown Vs. Topeka Board of Education: The Reasons

  • In many cases all-balck schools were not as good as white schools
  • The daughter of Oliver Brown ( Linda) was expected to walk 21 blocks across a dangerous rail track to here all black school when there was a better one seven blocks away 
  • NAACP decided to act, It asked a number of parents, includin Oliver Brown to try to register their children at the nearest school ( All had been given places at the nearest black school). They therefore decided using the Brown family as their example , to take matters to the district court though the case eventually reached the Supreme Court
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Brown Vs. Topeka Board of Education: The Events

In a landmark ruling Chief Justice warren stated that the concept of 'seperate but equal' was unconstitutional and that segreated schools were pyschologically harmful to children it was a unanimous decision(9v1). He ordered that southern states set up intergerated schools with 'all delibrate speed'. However once the descion was made nothing happened . The Judges of the US Supreme Court had not officaly set a deadline by which to change the schools by as President Eisenhower was worried that if desegregation was forced it would not work

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Brown Vs. Topeka Board of Education: The Results


  • In March 1956 , 22 southern senators issued the 'Southern Manifesto' in which they promised to do all they could to end segregation.
  • In January 1956 all elementary schools in Topeka were organised by area


  • In the south it led to huge problems. KKK membership rose dramativcly and many schools refused to implement intergration
  • By 1956 in six southern states not a single black child was attending a school with a white child
  • In 1962 segregated schools still exsisted in Mississippi, South Carolina and Alabama. In 1964 only 2% of black americans in southern states attended multiracial schools
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The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-56: The Reasons

  • On 1st December 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for breaking ;not for the first time, the bus segregation law. She travelled on the same bus every night . On this occasion the bus became full  and she was asked to move to another section when her seat was deemed to be in the white section. She refused and the driver stopped the bus and had her arrested for breaking the segregation laws. Four days later she wasconvicted and fined alongside being sacked from her job. Her stand was intetional,Parks was a trained NAACP activist she was feed up of the rudeness and discrimination on montogomery buses
  • Segregation on Buses
  • Brown Vs. Topeka case
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The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-56: The Reasons

  • On 1st December 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for breaking ;not for the first time, the bus segregation law. She travelled on the same bus every night . On this occasion the bus became full  and she was asked to move to another section when her seat was deemed to be in the white section. She refused and the driver stopped the bus and had her arrested for breaking the segregation laws. Four days later she wasconvicted and fined alongside being sacked from her job. Her stand was intetional,Parks was a trained NAACP activist she was feed up of the rudeness and discrimination on montogomery buses
  • Segregation on Buses
  • Brown Vs. Topeka case
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Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955- 56: The Events

  • Thousands of African americans walked to work while the citys 210 African American taxi drivers offered seats for the cost of the bus fare 
  • A car pool was also organised to get people to work
  • For the next 12 months over 17'000 Black Americans refused to use the bus service. At one time there were nearly 200 car pool vechiles most run by local churches
  • The boycott lasted a total of 381 days
  • Martin Luther King and became head of the Montgomery Improvement Asscoiation who hired NAACP Lawyers to take the case to the Suprmeme court. They sought moderate reforms e.g. politeness, first come first served
  • White groups retaliated harassing boycott leaders, MLK house was bombed and he was arrested for speeding.
  • On 13th Nov 1956 city chiefs managed to stop car pool claiming it was an unliscenced Taxi service but on the same day ,Supreme Court ruled segregation on buses unconstituionla came into effect 20th Dec 1956
  • Bus Company ruined finaclly and local shopkeepers lost $1 million
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The Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-56: The Results


  • The boycott and Rosa Parks became an inspiration to the Civil Rights Movement demonstrating that when blacks united they could succed and thsat violent opposittion increased support. The success of the boycott increased black confidence - when the KKK hooded and robed drove through black neighbourhoods the blacks waved at them.
  • There were copycat boycotts throughout the south 
  • Rosa parks founded institute for self development


  • Montgomery still segregated 
  • Boycott revealed depth of racism and the determination of some white people 
  • Rosa Parks and her hsiband lost their jobs and had to move to Detroit due to death threats
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Little Rock, 1957: The Causes

  • In 1954 the US Supreme Court ruled segregation in schools illegal
  • Arkansas had done little to intergrate schools- no time limit
  • The Arkansas State Press began a campaign to force desegregation
  • The School Board and the Citys Mayor agreed that token efforts should be made to intergrate schools
  • Orval Fabus Govenor of Arkansas disagreed with the Mayor
  • In 1957 the NAACP registers nine black students to Little Rock High School: Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jeffreson Thomas, Terena Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Minijean Brown, Gloria Ray, Thelma Mothershed and Melba Patillo-Bealls.
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Little Rock, 1957: The Events

  • On the first day (4th September) the nine students dont show up.
  • On the 5th they get stopped by the national Guard whilst trying to enter this was shown on TV across the USA many were schocked
  • Over the next 18 days they waited while Presidnet Eisenhower tried to persuade Orval Fabus to obey the ruling but he refused
  • On Monday 23rd the nine students got into the school through the delivery entrace when the large white mob outside heard they attacke black ameriacn and northern journalists on the streets the police did little to stop the violence
  • President Eisenhower ordered 1,1,00 paratroopers of the First Airborne to escort the nine students
  • 25th September Children went to school protected by the 1,100 soilders whilst the crowd shouted "2,4,6,8; we aren't going to intergrate" fthe soilders stayed till Novermber when the National Guard under direct control of the president took over they strayed for a year.
  • Only 8/9 students lasted the entire year
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Little Rock, 1957: The Results


  • It showed the rest of the USA the scale of the problem
  • 8/9 students lasted the year and 1 graduated


  • In school the Black students were assaulted and abused e.g. acid thrown on face
  • Four parents lost jobs
  • KKK membership grew
  • Black community angry at nine saying it had made life harder for blacks nicknamed the 'mediling nine'
  • Four years later only 3% of little rock students were black 
  • White mob attacked black americans and northern journalists
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Living Standards for Black Americans: Overview


  • Population: 151,684,000
  • Unemployed: 3,288,000
  • Life expectancy: Male- 65.6, Female- 71.1
  • Car Sales: 6,665,800
  • Average Salary($): 2,992
  • Labour Force (Male:Female): 5:2
  • Cost of a loaf of bread($): 0.14

Black Americans had started to leave the souther states in the first half of the 20th century to avoid the Jim Crow laws that were damaging their quality of life and limiting there work oppurtunites, and to escape the extent of racism in the south though this was not necesarilly better in the north

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Living Standards for Black Americans: + and -


  • Black Americans earned more in the north
  • 87% in poverty in 1940 had fallen to 41% by 1959
  • In the late 1950s or early 1960s black sportsmen  and women began to participate in baseball and American football as well as the Olympic Games


  • In the north they had to pay more for rent to live in appualing overcrowded 'ghettos' surronded by violence and crime
  • Not allowed to live in suburbs
  • Black Workers were usually trapped in low skilled low paying jobs 
  • Average Black income in 1957 xwas only 57% of a white workers
  • Unemployment amongst Black American at 11% double that of whites 
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The Freedom Rides, 1962: The Causes

  • They wanted to provoke a violent reaction from racist authorites to higjlight the problems facing black americans
  • Case of Boyton Vs. Virginia- Supreme Court ruled that segregation on interstate buses illegal this included segregation in terminals, waiting rooms and even resturants
  • To gain media attention for the Civil Rights Movement and expose racism in the south
  • CORE led the Freedom rides to attract attetion and support for their organisation
  • They wanted to force the Goverment to enforce the ruling through direct action
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The Freedom Rides, 1962: The Events

  • 4th May: 1961 the Freedom Riders left Washington DC
  • 14th May: the Freedom Riders left Atlanta for Birmingham. Members of the KKK got on the bus
  • 15th May: No bus driver was willing to take them futher so the Freedom Riders had to fly to New Orleans
  • 17th May: 10 riders arrived in Birmingham to continue the journey by bus. They were arrested and taken 150 miles away from Birmingham. They returned to Birmingham determined to contiue but could find no driver
  • 20th May: Riders were on their way to Montgomery. Some Klan members attacked the bus. Some riders were seriously hurt
  • 21st May:   MLK spoke to the riders . The church he was in was surronded and had to be protected by the National Guard
  • 24th May: 27 Freedom Riders travelled from Montgomery to Jackson. They were arrested for going into the white only waiting room. 328 more riders were arrested by the end of the summer
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The Freedom Rides, 1962: The Results


  • Showed racism of the south
  • Gained Media interest which highlighted racism and gained support
  • Atorney General enforced the ruling
  • White and Blacks worked together for civil rights - helped to gain support
  • Showed different Civil Rights organisations could work together


  • Some riders seriously injured
  • Segregation still remained in place in most sectors so the impact was limited
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The Freedom Marches, 1963: The Causes

  • They wanted to gain media attention to create support for their cause
  • They wanted to provoke violence from the racist white to once again gain support nad media attention
  • In 1962 Black Americans were experiencing poverty and unemployment on a larger scale than ever before
  • Martin Luther King recognised a high level of publicity could be achieved
  • Washigton March caused partially by the success of the march in Birmingham where segregation was ended by their non violent protest
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The Freedom Marches, 1963: The Birmingham March

In 1963 martin Luther Kingorganised a freedom march in Birmingham, Alabama. It was chosen as it was one of the most segregated cities in the USA and its police chief "Bull Connor" was unpredictable. MLK wanted desegreagtion of eating places and more jobs for Black Americans. The demonstrations began with sit-ins at downtown lunch counters. At first there was little support so King arranged for a thousand school children to join the parade this became known as th" Childrens Crusade". When police attacked the marchers, television viewers were schocked and it led to increased support for the Civil rights Movement

Bull Connors lost his job and Birmingham was desgregated so the march was seen as a success however some argue whether the use of children was ethical

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The Freedom Marches, 1963: The Washington March

 Marchers met at the Wahsington Monument before dawn on 28th August 1963 . At 11.30am they marched to Lincoln Memorial where MLK gave his 'I have a dream' speech - in speech he spoke of desire for Blacks and Whites to live in harmony as equals . Summed up civil rights movemnt highlighting main issues facing Blacks. Stressed importance of non-violent resistance. The speech was watched by millions on TV and helped to make MLK the most famous Civil Rights Campaigner

  • Aimed at encouraging the introduction of a civil rights billand to get goverment to increase black job oppurtunites
  • First Time the major civil rights leaders collabarated on a national undertaking i.e. NAACP, SCLC and SNCC
  • Very carefully planned as organisers worried it may turn into a riot
  • Marchers set off from all over the USA to march on Washington DC where they couldnt get there symbolic marches to town halls or abroad to US embassies were held
  • March was highly effective st bringing Civil Rights to the public. In total 250,000 people attended ( including 75,000 white supporters)
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The Freedom Marches, 1963: The Results

How they helped the Civil Rights Movement

  •  Great degree of white support for the cause and strength of support shown
  • Generated Publicty
  • Protests were well organised and peacful
  • First time multiple groups collabrated
  • JFK met with the organisers to congratulate them on the success of the march, the march also gained support for JFK civil rights legislation
  • America now saw that it would have to accept that the postion of black americans was going to changed
  • Bombing Schocked tyhe public and helped build support for civil rights legislation

Negative Impacts

  • Provoked the Klan who bombed 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama killing four young girls,this lead to race riots in Birmingham during which two more black children were killed no city officals attended the funerals
  • There was little immediate change
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Black Power Movement 1960s: The causes

The Black Power Movement was amore radical civil rightrs movement that emerged in the 1960s. its groups were prepared to use violence to achieve their aims. In particular they beilived in Black Supremacy, excluding white people from their movement and campaigning for radical changes in housing and education

  • In the Ghettos poverty deprivation and unemployment were rife. In Chicagos ghettos 70% of Black youths were unemployed. Poor housing led to violence and crime. Only 32% of ghetto children finished high school
  • In 1965 a clumsy and brutal attempt to arrest a black drunk driver lead to riots in the Watts area of LA. Between 1964 and 1968 there were 238 riots in more than 200 cities which lead to 250 deaths most from police beatings and millions of dollars of damage
  • Middle Class campaigners of the SCLC and the NAACP knew little of the ghetto world. After 1964 CORE workers rented freedom houses in northern ghettos and distributed information about education,employment, health and housing. In 1966 the SNCC mounted Atlanta project , group of SNCC students cleared waste areas, published a newsletter called Nitty Gritty to denounce white lies and persuade balcks to vote
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Black Power Movement 1960s: The SNCC

  • The Student Non-violent Coordinating Comitee was formed in April 1960 at Shaw University
  • In 1966 the SNCC choose Stokely Carmichael as its leader and expelled all its white members
  • carmichael advocated self-defence rather than non-violence
  • Stokely Carmichael gave the movement its name when heb shouted 'Black Power' at a speech in Greenwood, Mississippi
  • In 1967 Carmichael was succeded by H 'Rap' Brown who encouraged poor black people to seize white shops this lead to ghetto riots later that year
  • In 1969 the SNCC changed its name to the Student National Coordinating Comitee to reflect the group was no longer no violent
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Black Power Movement 1960s: The Black Panthers

  • Formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Searle in 1966 in response to ploice brutality in watts riots
  • Party had a 10 point programme; its demands included land, bread, housing,education,justice and peace
  • The organisation formed links with communist freedom fighters worlwide
  • In 1968 it temporarily merged with the SNCC
  • At its height it had 5000 members orgainsed into 30 chapters
  • In L.A. it set up health clinics and an ambulance and gave free breakfast to ghetto children. It also attacked police, Panther patrols would shadow police patrols and if police started harassing black americans the panthers would protect the blacks
  • FBI labelled them a 'black nationalist hate group' trageting it leaders and jailing them
  • Many black panthers were shot in a gun battle that followed the ambush of a police patrol in 1968. In response California decided to recruit police in proportion to the size of black and white populations in the state
  • after 24 deaths in battles with the plice its leaders gave up violence concentrating on community programmes
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Black Power Movement 1960s: The Nation of Islam

  • It was a Black Muslim movement formed in 1930 it was both nationalist and seperatist meaning its solution was either to retur to Africa or to have a seperate black american state in the south
  • NoI had about 250,000 members by1970 - most famous Muhammad Ali and Malcom X
  • MLK labelled it 'a hate group' and NAACP leader Thurgooa Marshall -'bunch of thugs'
  • Malcom X was a vigurous and aggresive man, joined NoI whilst in prison for dealing drugs presented himself as the alternative "Dr King" branded MLK a fool argued whites left blacks no other option but violence
  • In 1964 Malcom X suspende from group as he appeared to welcome assaination of JFK as a result he renounced NoI 
  • In 1964 his New York jome was fire bombed and in 1965 he was assainated by a NoI Gunman
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Black Power Protest at the Mexico City Olympics, 1

Tommie Smith and John Carlos raced in the 200 metres at the 1968 Mexico Olympics. Tommie Smith came first with a world record time of 19.83 seconds, followed by an Australian Peter Norman, with John Carlos coming third. On the podium they wore many symbolic accesories for example:Shoeless wearing black socks to represent black poverty, Beads to represent those lynched killed or even thos who died on slave ships, a Black Scarf to represent Black Pride, Black gloves arcof power(right) and Unity(left) and Jacket open to represnt workers, underdogs those important but unrecognised and gave the Black Power slaute. They were supported by Peter Norman who wore the OPHR badge in support. The athletes were booed as they left the podium. The Olympic Committee said the games should not be used for political protest so suspended Tommie Smithe and John Carlos and banned them from the lympic Villiage

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Mexico Olympics Protest: The Results

Helped The Movement

  • Showed worldwide support e.g. Peter Norman
  • Gave Huge media attention to the Civil Rights Movement
  • Showed the determination and commitment of individuals to the civil rights cause

It was a waste of time

  • Didnt bring about any direct changes 
  • Embaressed many black and white Americans due to the medias reaction
  • Criticised by the media long after the event and both atheletes wre ignored by the US Sporting establishment 
  • Smith and Carlos subject to abuse and famlies recieved death threats 
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Martin Luther King:The Early Years-Part 1

  • On 2nd Decemeber , Edgar Nixon a civil right leader called MLK about hwo to react to Rosa parks arrest agreed non-violent protest was needed
  • Formed MIA with King as president aim  was to improve the general status of Montgomery and uplift general tenor of the community gave his first TV speech that evening
  • On 30th Jan 1956 his house was firebombed. 300 angry, armed african american gathered outside. king turned them away telling them violence was not the answer but that love and non-violence was. after the attack MLK went on tour to publicise and generate support for the boycott
  • King was sent to jail for two week during the boycott
  • When the laws changed he took the first desegregated Bus Ride in montgomery on 21st Dec 1956
  • in 1957 set up Southern christian leadership conference - harness moal authority, oragnising power of black churches to promote no-violence. King led the SCLC till his death 
  • In 1958 published book on boycott called Stride Towards Freedom
  • King campaigned to secure the right to vote wanted abolishin of poll tax and literacy tests
  • King supported SNCC began series of sit-ins at resturants and churches and wade-ins at pools. In 1961 supported Freedom Rides and Albany Movement which tried to end all segregation by August 1962 it was a clear failure 
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Martin Luther King:The Early Years-Part 2

  • 13th April 1963 involved in Birmingham march he was imprisoned wrote famous 'Letter from Birmingham Jail' explained feeling that Civil Rights could only be achived through non-violent forceful direct action. MLK released 20th April
  • Childrens Crusade - school age children protested, police commisoner 'Bull Conor used violence to stop it and threw many in prison. This lead to some negative publicity for the way police dealt with protesters- Conor lost job, 'Jim Crow' signs removed and Birminghams public ammeneties open for all
  • Protests continued over 900 cities targeted for non- violent portest. Washington march and 'I have a dream speech' centerpieces of campaign
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Martin Luther King:The Early Years-Part 2

  • 13th April 1963 involved in Birmingham march he was imprisoned wrote famous 'Letter from Birmingham Jail' explained feeling that Civil Rights could only be achived through non-violent forceful direct action. MLK released 20th April
  • Childrens Crusade - school age children protested, police commisoner 'Bull Conor used violence to stop it and threw many in prison. This lead to some negative publicity for the way police dealt with protesters- Conor lost job, 'Jim Crow' signs removed and Birminghams public ammeneties open for all
  • Protests continued over 900 cities targeted for non- violent portest. Washington march and 'I have a dream speech' centerpieces of campaign
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The Civil Rights Act, 1964: Causes

Findings of the Civil Rights Commision

  • 57% of African American housing deemed unacceptable
  • African americans expected to live 7 years less than whites
  • African American infant moratlity double that of whites
  • African Americans found it impossible to get mortgages from lenders
  • Property values would drop if a African American family moved into a neighbourhood

Birmingham bombing

  • 15th Sept 1963, the KKK bombed the Baptist church in Birmingham killing four girls public appaulled

Kennedys Assassination

  • Used a emotional Blackmail to force congress to agree
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The Civil Rights Act, 1964: Causes- Part 2

President Johnsons Role

  • Won over southern hardliners told them he wouldnt give blacks an easy life easier as he was a southerner
  • Belived he owed it to Kennedy to push through bill and worried about militant Civil rights groups
  • Used death as blackmail

President Kenedys Support

  • Worked with Civil Rights Commision 
  • Made a passionate publi speech in June 1963 making commisions findings avaliableto public. Argued how could they condem the USSR an turn a blind eye to this
  • Met with King and others after washigton march

Public opinion in favour

  • Media coverage of violence in Birmingham anpeacful Washington march created great sympathy for civil rights
  • By Jan 1964 68% of public supported meanigful civil rights act
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The Civil Rights Act, 1964: The Results-Part 1


  • Many supported as didnt want to damage Kennedy bill
  • Right to end segregation in public places and goverment agencies
  • Equal employment commision
  • Encouraged desegregation in schools
  • Illegal to give federal money to an organisation that continued segregation
  • It set a precedent that would lead to future acts e.g. Voting Rights and showed the civil rights Movement peaceful tactics worked


  • Many southerners horrified by extent of the act lead to many abandoning support for the democrats
  • African American communityangry as it didnt guarrentee the right to vote - still reliant on whites
  • Riots by African Americans in the north as they said it didnt go far enough
  • Mississippi Freedom Democratic party demanded seats at the democrat party conference believed they were more represntative of the community
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The Civil Rights Act, 1964: Results - Part 2

Negative Cont.

  • Justified violent groups actions
  • MLK pointed out it didnt go far enough
  • Johnson dismayed by lack of African American support
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The Noble Peace Prize,1964

Martin Luther King was awarded the prize as his stuggle represnts that of all those who work for peace and equality. He is given it for his dedication to non-violent protest and is the first western man to do this. he has sacrificed a lot in his quest for equality and this award recognises this

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Race Riots 'The Long Hot Summers', 1965-67: Causes

  • Malcom X called for focus on improving social and economic condtions
  • Moyhian Report found 50% of Black Americans aged 16-25 had acriminal record this reflected the high levels of poverty experieced. Blacks twice as likey to be unemployed , 1/10 whites earnt less than $5000 dollars a years for blacks it was a 1/3. 46% lived in unsound accomadtion. They lived in black only areas due to phenomena of white flight.Public facilites and education in adequate known as 'ghettoisation'
  • After Selma king turned his attention to social and economic problems
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Race Riots 'The Long Hot Summers', 1965-67: Events

August 1965 five days after the Voting rights Act passed, riotss started in the Watts area of L.A. after an african american was arrested for drink driving and subjected to a brutal beating by police. In the six days of rioting 34 were killed and 1000 were injured. Huge mobs attacked motorists and did $40 million worth of damage to white buissness. 14'000 troops were required to restore order, 3500 people were arrested this marked the start of the Long Hot Summers

Gained attention over the next three years with most large US cities outside the south having a riot e.g. Newark, New Jersey(1967) and Detroit, Michigan(1967). Some had several Oakland, California(1965 and 1966), Cleveland, Ohio(1966 and 1968), Chicago, Illinios(1966 and 1968). 

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Race Riots 'The Long Hot Summers', 1965-67: Result


  • They showed economic and social issues more important to most than voting rights
  • Gained media attention showing african american upset about economic and socila issues
  • King attempts to switch tactics to focus on social and economic issues


  • President Johnson appaulled by rioting. He had done much to help African Americans. The riots made it very difficult for Johnson and Congress to pass futher legislation to improve condtions for black americans
  • 130 killed, 3553 injured, 28,932 arrested, and about $714.8 in damage
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The Selma -Montgomery march.

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The Selma-Montgomery March, March 1965: Causes

  • After accepting Nobel Peace Prize king turned attention to voting rights
  • Civil Rights Act, 1964 had done little to stop devices used to prevent African Americans from registering to vote e.g. Qualifing Questions
  • King thought March from Selma to Montgomery in Alabama a state still preventing African Americans from voting was the best option 
  • Selma selected as King belived local sheriff Jim Clark would respond violently
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The Selma-Montgomery March, March 1965: Events

  • Began 7th march 1965 in Selma after going a short distance they were attacked by state troopers who fired tear gas, beat and whipped marchers- named 'Bloody Sunday' the event was teleivised
  • Second march on the 9th March postponed as King feared worse violence
  • At the end of the month, once the courts had declared the march legal, 25,000 people successfully marched to Montgomery
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The Selma-Montgomery March, March 1965: Results


  • President Johnson and Congress passed 1965 Voting Rights Act which banned literacy tests and other devices
  • Largest Freedom March held in the South
  • Gained vast media attention


  • Marred by splits in the leadership of the SCLC and SNCC
  • Many membefrs critical of KIngs insistence on non-violence espically in the face of unprovoked attack
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MLK Assassination: The Final Campaigns

Chicago Freedom Movement, 1966


  • Campaign for better social and economic condtions for African Americans speciffically for fairer housing


  • Only 30,000 turned up for first rally 
  • There were riots in the summer when Knig tried to lead a peacful march through white police couldnt stop white attackers- King said it was the most hostile mobe he'd ever seen
  • Richard Daley promised to respect Citys fiar housing laws broke promise once re-elected
  • Seen as a failure, King had failed to recognise the scale of problems in the north. King realised social change couldnt happen overnight. president Johnson refused to help due to Kings anti-vietnam speech


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MLK Assassination: The Final Campaigns- Part 2

Poor Peoples Campaign,1968


  • Better standard of living for the poor and an end to ghettos. Goverment to pledge $30 billion a year to combat poverty, build 1/2 million new homes and commit to full employment


  • Radical plan to unite all groups( latin americans, native american and poor whites struggling with poverty)
  • There would be a national campaign of civil disodence culminating in a March on washington
  • President Johnson made it vclear he didnt support the plan. Netherless by March 1968 the SCLC had won the support of many unions and religous groups and had begun to raise money for the campaign
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MLK Assassination: The Final Campaigns- Part 3

Memphis Sanitation Workers' Strike,1968


  • To recognise the Sanitation workers union and get better pay


  • Memphis Authorites didnt recognise union. The 13,000 workers protest was ended by police with tear gas. The union was mainly african american but contained some whites. Protest was non-violent aims were economic. Asked for Kings help he agreed. The March on March18th was unsuccessful as although led by King and initailly non-violent things got out off hand and violence began
  • After the unsuccesful march which King feared had lost the PPC its reputation he hoped to reorganise a new march. Before this could happen he was assassinated 
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MLK Assassination: The Death and Impact

On the 4th April King was shot through the jaw whilst standing on the balcony of his hotel room by James Earl Ray. He died in the emergency room aged 39


  • Memphis Authorites gave in to sanitation union demands
  • President Johnson used it to get Congress to pass a Fair Housing Act,1968 it meant it was illegal to refuse sake or rent of a property based on race and illegal to advertise property based on race
  • Hotel in Memphis where King was shot turned into National Civil Rights Museum in 1991- Kings room left exactly as it was
  • In 1983 every third Monday in january became a national holiday - Martin Luther King Day


  • Race Riots in 130 cities across 29 states including Atlanta, Nashville, Washington, Newyork in which 46 people died and over 3000 were injured. Kings ideal of non-violence ignored
  • Poor peoples Campaign was a failure March on washington flopped as new SCLC leader Ralph Aberhathy lacked Charisma and ther was heavy rain
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MLK Assassination: The Death and Impact Cont.

Negative Cont.

  • Stokely Carmichael - "White America attacked Black America " encouraged Black Americans to get a gun
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