Starting of Affirmative Action
1965- President delivered a speech 2 Howard University (black unis set up during reconstruction) - called: "to fufill these rights"
June 1965 (earlier that month) Voting Rights act Passed
1964 - Civil Rights Act Passed
^together effectively ending remaining forms of legalised racial discrimination
quoted Winston Churchill in speech; dismantling the barriers for black people "not the end, it is not even the beginning of the even, but it is, perhaps the end of the beginning"
Achieving the goals for African Americans "to be treated in every part of national life...as person equal in dignity" was "the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights"
President Johnson argued fairness required that the government intro. range of policies that would help Af. A to make up for racial inequalities they had suffered>>^^^AFFIRMATIVE ACTION!
During Johnsons Presidency following Af.Action Policies were intro:
- Education: 1966- Dep. for Housing, Education & Welfare (HEW) tightened regulations for the intregration of schools - many areas atill segregated. 1955 Brown vs board of education sc case against segregation of schools were the sc ruled it 'unconstitutional'.1964 Civil Rights Act (powers given by this) HEW threatened to withhold funds to schools if it did not act quick enough with desegregation.
- Housing: 1968- Housing and Urban Development Act was passed- this provided funds for increased construction of public houses / subsidies for the private construction of homes for low income and middle income famililes. Fair Housing Act Also passed in 1968: prohibitied racial discrimination when selling or renting your home.
Nixon * Af.Action
Nixon- Predescessor of Johnson
complicated relationship with Af.action. - Alth was a rep; ( &victory at 1968 election was owed to white resentment at policies directed at improving circumstances for Af.Ams) some of the most far-reaching affirmative policies was bought in by his administration
- EEOC (Equal Employment Oppotunities Commission) GOV AGENCY- wanted power 2 force a change in hiring practice (through courts if necess.) if an industry showed a clear pattern in racial discriminiation.
- 1969 Nixon Agreed: Philedelphia Plan
enabling EEOC to monoitor all contractors doing business with fed. gov and if there was clear evidence of rac.dis employment practices then it requried them to "re-establish goals "timetables for the hiring of monirities"