Q) Explain, in terms of intermolecular bonds, why chlorine is a gas at room temperature and pressure but bromine is a liquid under the same conditions. As part of your answer you should explain how the intermolecular bonds arise.
a) Instantaneous dipole-induced dipole bonds arise, by the electron movement in a molecule create an uneven distribution of charge and a dipole is formed. It then induces a dipole in a neighbourghing molecule which leads to an attraction. The intermolecular bonds are stronger in Bromine as it has more electrons, and more energy is required to break intermolecular bond sin Bromine.
Q) Carbon dioxide is a gas at room temperature and silicon dioxide is a solid at room temperature.
Explain this difference in terms of bonding and structure.
a) Carbon dioxide has a simple molecular structure with weak intermolecular bonds between the molecules and less energy is needed to seperate the molecules as less energy is required to break the intermolecular bonds. Silicon dioxide is a giant covalent lattice with strong intermolecular bonds between the molecules and more energy is required to seperate the molecules.