Question Cards

These cards can be used to ask a general awray of knowledge that should be know by students sitting the BIO4 AQA paper.

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  • Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 21-01-12 14:40

Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

1. What is the name given to all the same species living in the same habitat?

2. Define a community...
Populations of different species living together in one habitat.

3. Give the term and examples of the non-living features of an ecosystem...
Abiotic= rainfall, temperature, CO2 levels, wind, minerals.

4. What happens when two different species try to occupy the same niche?
The two species compete until only one specie is left.

5. Explain why samples of a population are taken?
To observe the abundance, whether frequency or percentage cover and then distribution of certain species.

6.What is interspecific compertition?
Compertition between two or more different species for the same resources.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

7. What is meant when a specie is said to be 'out-competed'?
The species won't be able to exist alongside the better adapted species.

8. Define intraspecific compertition...
When organisms of the same specie compete for the same resources.

9. How do you calculate population growth rate from birth rate and death rate?
Population growth rate = birth rate - death rate

10. What do age-sex pyramids show?
How many males and females are living in different age groups within a population.

11. Name three biological processes in animals that need energy...
Muscle contraction, active transport, protein synthesis.

12. What is photosynthesis?
A process where energy from light is used to make glucose from H2O and CO2.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

13. What is the overall equation for areobic respiration?
6O2 + C6H12O6 ---->> 6H2O + 6CO2

14. How many phosphate groups does ATP have?

15. Give the name of the coenzyme involved in photsynthesis...

16. Give two specific properties of ATP that makes it available as an immediate source of energy...
Its a small soluble molecule, releases only small managable amounts of energy.

17. Where does the light-dependant reaction take place?
The thylakiods of the chloroplasts.

18. What three substances does non-cylic phosphorylation produce?
ATP, reduced NADP, oxygen.


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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

19. Which photosystem is involved in cyclic phosphorylation?
Photosystem One.

20. Where in the chloroplasts does the light-independant reaction take place?

21. How many carbon atoms are there in a molecule of triose phosphate (TP)?
Three carbons.

22. Name two organic substances formed from TP...
Carbohydrates ie. starch and amino acids.

23. How many molecules of CO2 need to enter the Calvin Cycle to make one hexose sugar?

24. Give three factors that can limit plant growth...
Light intensity, temperature and CO2.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

25. Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
The cytoplasm.

26. Is glycolysis an anaerobic or aerobic process?
Anaerobic, however occurs in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

27. What is the net production of ATP in glycolysis?

28. What is the product of the link reaction?
Acetylcoenzyme A.

29. Where in the cell does Krebs cycle occur?
Mitachondrial matrix.

30. How many times does decarboxylation happen in one turn of Krebs cycle and where abouts?
Twice, when citrate (6C) is converted to a 5C molecule and when the 5C molecule becomes oxaloacetate (4C).

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

31. What do electrons lose as they move along the electron transport chain?

32. What are the two products of anaerobic respiration?
Ethanol and Lactate.

33. Why is ethanal coverted to ethanol in anaerobic respiration?
The production of ethanol regenerates the NAD which means glycolysis can continue and ATP can still be produced.

34. State the main way energy enters an ecoystem...

35. What do food webs show?
Many different food chains in an ecosystem which overlap.

36. What do pyramids of biomass show?
The dry mass of an organism (Kgm-2) at a single moment in time.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

37. What are the units for a pyramid of energy?

38. Name two types of pesticides?
Fungicides and Herbicides.

39. What does intensive farming involve?
Killing pests, using fertilisers, rearing livestock intensivly.

40. Give three ways in which farmers try and increase the amount of energy available for growth in livestock...
Kept in warm conditions reducing amount of energy lost as heat, movement is restricted so less energy used up in respiration, given feed thats higher in energy therefore increasing the energy input.

41. Why do CO2 levels decrease during the day?
Respiration occurs constantly, however photosynthesis only occurs during the day when light available.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

42. What is nitrogen fixing?
When nitrogen gas in the atmosphere is turned into ammonia by bacteria, in nodules found on leguminous plants ie. beans.

43. What is ammonification?
When nitrogen compounds from dead organisms are turned into ammonium compounds by decomposers.

44. What is nitrification?
When ammonium compounds in the soil are changed into nitrogen compounds that can be used by the plants, first to nitrites and then to nitrates.

45. What is denitrification?
When nitrates in the soil are converted to Nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria.

46. What is leaching?
When water-soluble compounds in the soil are washed away.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

47. Briefly describe eutrophication...
Nitrates leached from the soil, stimulates growth of algae, this blocks light from the plants below the surface, so they can't photosynthesis and die, bacteria feed on the dead plants, increased bacteria reduce levels of oxygen due to aerobic respiration, fish and plants die because there isn't enough dissolved oxygen.

48. What is the difference between primary and secondary succession
Primary = no soil at all in the environment
Secondary = event eg. forest fire occurs which destroys the ecosystem.

49. What is the name given to the species that first colonises an area during succession?
Pioneer specie.

50. What is meant by a climax community?
When there is a dominant specie and the ecosystem stops changing

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

51. What is meant by the term genotype?
The genetic construction of an organism.

52. What is meant by the phenotype?
The expression of the genetic constitution and its interaction with the environment.

53. What is meant by codominance?
Alleles that are both expressed in the phenotype.

54. Give an example of when codominance occurs...
In sickle cell anaemia.

55. What is a sex-linked gene?
When the genetic information for gender is carried on two sex chromosomes.

56. What is a carrier?
A person carrying an allele which is not expressed in the phenotype but can be passed on to the offspring.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

57. What is a gene pool?
A complete range of alleles present in a population.

58. What conditions are needed for the Hardy-Weinburg principle to apply?
Large population, no mutations, no immigration/emigration or natural selection.

59. Which term represents the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype in the Hardy-Weinburg equations?

60. Which term represents the frequency of the heterozgous genotype in the Hardy-Weinburg equations?

61. What is stabilising selection?
Occurs when environment isnt changing and it reduces the range of possible phenotypes, the population becomes more uniform.

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Question Cards for BIO4 revision.

62. What is directional selection?
When the environment is changing and a population with extreme type of alleles are more likely to survive.

63. What is speciation?
The development of new species.

64. Describe one type of allopatric speciation...
Geographical Isolation, species become reproductively isolated, the seperated species experience different conditions, may lead to mutations in the gene pool, the two species have become different species and can no longer produce fertile offspring.

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