Qualitative tests

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Flame tests

- Dip Nichrome wire in acid, select the sample and hold it over bunsun burner.


Sodium - Na+ - Yellow flame

Potassium - K+ - Lilac Flame

Calcium - Ca2+ - Yellow/Red Flame

Copper - Cu2+ - Green/Blue Flame

Lithium - Li+ - Brick red Flame

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Hydroxide Precipitates

- First dissolve the sample in water

- Add a few drops of sodium hydroxide 


Aluminium Ions - White precipitate(Redissolves to from colourless solution if more NaHO is added)

Calcium Hydroxide - White precipitate

Copper Hydroxide - Pale blue precipitate 

Iron(II) - Green precipitate 

Iron(III) - Brown precipitate 

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Halide Test

- Add a few drops of Nitric acid to the sample 

- Add a few drops of Silver Nitrate solution 


Chlorine ions - White Precipitate

Bromide ions - Cream precipitate  

Iodine ions - Yellow Precipitate

(Milk, cream, Butter)

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Sulfate ions

- Add a few drops of Hydrochloric acid to the sample

- Add a few drops of Barium chloride


White Precipitate (If sulfate ions are present)

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Carbonate ions

- Add Hydrochloric acid to the sample 


Carbon dioxide gas released - Bubble through Lime water - It turns Milky

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Ammonium ions

-Mix sample with Sodium hydroxide 

- Warm it using a bunsun burner 


Ammonia gas given off - Has distinctive smell 

Turns Damp red litums paper blue

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