Q&A Land Law

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Progression from LRA 1925 - LRA 2002

  • Registered interests - Sched 2 and registered estates
  • Indemnity - Sched 8
  • Rectification - Sched 4
  • Gurantee of Title - S 58
  • Overriding interests - Sched 1 & 3 - decreased the scope of overriding interests

Reasons behind land registration system

  • Title
  • Insurance Principle
  • Curtain Principle
  • Mirror Principle
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Interests binding on a purchaser - S 29 LRA 2002

Overriding interests

  • Legal leases of less than or equal to 7 years - Sched 1 Para 1, Sched 3 Para 1
  • Interests protected by actual occupation - Sched 1 Para 2, Sched 3 Para 2
  • Legal easements - Sched 1 Para 3
  • Implied legal easements - Sched 3 Para 3

Registered interests

  • Estates - freehold estates and leasehold estates of more than 7 years
  • Interests entered as the subject of a notice - S 33 LRA 2002
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Methods of Severance

Methods of severance - joint tenancy or tenancy in common

  • Mutual agreement (Hunter v Babbage)
  • Mutual conducut (Williams v Hensman)
  • If joint tenancy, right of survivorship applies (Gould v Kemp)
  • Notice - S 36 LPA 1925 (Smith v Davis)
  • Acting on your own share: Going bankrupt (Re Dennis) Forgoing signature (First National Securities v Hegerty)
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Leases

Fundamental of leases

  • RENT - not always needed - S 205 LPA 1925 (Ashburn Anstalt v Arnold)
  • EXCLUSIVE POSSESSION - (Street v Mountford)
  • FORMALITIES - legal lease - S 52 & 54 LPA 1925, - equitable lease - S 2 LPA (MP) 1989 (Walsh v Lonsdale)
  • TIME CERTAIN - (Berrisford v Mexfield), - periodic tenancy (Prudential Assurance v London Residuary Body)
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Breach of covenant

Remedies for breach of covenant

  • Action for arrears of rent - debt claim
  • Action for damages
  • Distress - right to seize goods for recovery of rent only
  • Set-off - often excluded
  • Action for debt - (Jarvis v Harris)
  • Injunction - discretionary
  • Forfeiture  - Right of re-entry
     - Ends the lease S 146 LPA 1925
     - Commercial/residential distinction
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Proprietary Estoppel

General principles of proprietary estoppel

  • Informal method of creating interests in land
  • Development - (Wilmott v Barber) TO (Taylor Fashion v Liverpool Victoria)
  • Assurance - must be 'sufficiently certain' (Thorner v Major)
  • Detriment - does not need to be related to the land per se (Jennings v Rice)
  • Reliance - presumed once detriment is shown (Greasley v Cooke)
  • Unconscionability - separate requirement or the background principle? (Dixon)
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Easements

Requirements of easements (Re Ellenborough Park)

  • Dominant and servient land must be in separate ownership (Roe v Sidoons)
  • Dominant and servient land (Hawkins v Rutter)
  • Easement accomodates the dominant land
     - Not conferring a personal benefit (Hill v Tupper)
     - Sufficient physical proximity (Bailey v Stevens)
  • Capable of forming the subject matter of a grant
     - Capable grantor and grantee
     - Sufficiently certain (Browne v Flower)
     - Within the general nature of rights, recognised as easements (Phipps v Pears)  (Batchelor v Marlowe)
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Methods of creating easements

Methods of creating easements

Expressly

  • Written contract - equitable easement - (Walsh v Lonsdale)
  • Deed - equitable easement (unregistered land) - S 52 LPA 1925
  • Entry as the subject of a notice (registered land) - S 2 LRA 2002

Impliedly

Grant

  • Easements of necessity - (Re MRA Engineering)
  • Common intention - (Wong v Beaumont Properties)  (Stafford v Lee)
  • The rule in Wheeldon v Burrows
  • S 62 LPA 1925 - (Platt v Crouch)

Reservation

  • Easement of necessity - (Pinnington v Galland)
  • Common intention - (Peckham v Ellison)
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Running the burden of a freehold covenant

Burden of freehold covenants

  • Restrictive covenants only, and only in equity - (Tulk v Moxhay)
  • 'Touches and concerns the land'
  • Dominant and servient land is required
  • Presumed annexation - S 79 LPA 1925
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Running the benefit of a freehold covenant

Running of the benefit of a freehold covenant

  • Touches and concerns the land
  • Sue in contract
  • Party to the covenant as a result of S 56 LPA 1925
  • Successor - legal or equitable estate
  • Assignment
  • Annexation S 78 LPA 1925
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