Q1: Figure 1

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 25-01-15 18:20


Mercalli :

  1. As the intensity increases so does the level od damage.
  2. 50% of Adobe style and 40% of unreinforced masonry buldings are damage/collapsed
  3. Hati and such places use these buiding - Death toll high - buildings kill not earthuquake
  4. Shown by lesser damaged in better built (figures on graph)
  5. Investment saves lifes
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Q2: Siesmic waves

  1. Shock waves released from the strata at the focus point located in the lithosphere
  2. Recorded on a siesmograph
  3. Three main types of Wave


  • Travel the fastest
  • Travel through solids
  • Push and pull in the same direction


  • Travel more slowly
  • Move at right angels
  • Cause a lot of damage
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Q2: Surface waves


  1. Love Waves

Travel through solids

Move from side to side

Cause alot of damage

Shearing affect

    2. Rayleigh Waves

Travel through both liquids and solids

Move in a rolling motion

  • P&S waves travel through the interior of the earth. Studying these with a seismograph has allowed us to create a pciture of the interior of the earth
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Q3: Management

Emergency serives:

  • Immedetely sent out 80,000 troops to build rescue efforts
  • Soliders parachuted to the remotest regions
  • Essential supplies were dropped from aircraft
  • Soliders used explosives to divert water from lake Tangjiashan


  • June 2008 95 billion Yuan was allocated by the Chinese government
  • Foreign donations had yielded over 5.5 billion Yuan and Materials
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Q13: Figure 5

  1. At first glance, yes
  2. North/ South divide was put forward over 30 years ago
  3. High use in S.America, Persian Gulf, and South East Asia
  4. Russia  and Eastern Europe have reatively low usage
  5. 25% of China's usage is sugnificantly higher than 40% in Western Europe
  6. High usage in NIC's - Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea
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Q14: Grown in groupings

  1. Free trade
  2. Customs union (operate tariff goods)
  3. Common market (free to move)
  4. Economic Unions (Comon Agricultural- EU)
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Q22: urban sustainability

Sustainability: Meeting the needs of today, without compromising the future   The Beddington Zero Energy Development (bedZED) was completed in 2002 in the London Borough of Sutton

  • built on reclaimed land
  • 82 homes (10 for key workers and 15 affordable homes for social housing)
  • Houses face south for heat and offices face north for shade
  • Designed to be fully insulated so heated by occupants and appliances e.g. cookers and solar panels
  • Built from natural, recycled or reclaimed materials
  • Zero use of fossil fuels- combined heat and power plant using waste
  • Layout designed to favour pedestrians and cyclists


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  The Hammarby scheme in southern Stockholm aims at sustainability by:

  • Energy residents will produce more than 50% of their energy needs for combustible waste which is burned for power production. Energy is also generated from solar panels and cells
  • waste- block-based recycling using underground waste disposal pipes for sorted waste. Organic waste is converted into fertiliser while paper, glass and metal are recycled
  • sewage- used to produce biogas and heat from the treated water is used for district heating and to power buses and vans
  • transport- the target is for 80% of journeys to be on public transport or bicycle. There is a carpool system and a network of cycle paths
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