Punto 2

Adjectival agreement in description

SER + ADJECTIVE

Adjectives match the noun they refer to in gender and number. In the singular, most adjectives take an -o ending with the masculine nouns and an -a with feminine nouns; adjectives ending in -e don't change.

-o = Julián es alto y delgado = Julián is tall and slim

-a = Carmen es alta y delgada = Carmen is tall and slim

-e = Maria es fuerte. Juan es fuerte = Maria is strong. John is strong.

Consonent = Jacinta es joven = Jacinta is young

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Adjectives for people

Alto/a = tall

Bajo/a = short

Gordo/a = fat

Delgado/a = slim

Joven = young

Mayor = old

Fuerte = strong

Guapo/a = good looking

Feo/a = ugly

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Describing a face

La cabeza = the head

El pelo = hair

Las orejas = ears

El nariz - nose

Las cejas = eyebrows

La boca = mouth

Las gafas = glasses

Los ojos = eyes

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Describing physical appearance using ser and tener

Es alta y fuerte = she is tall and strong

Tiene el pelo ***** = he/she has dark hair

The definite article (el, la, los, las) is normally used when referring to parts of the body.

Tiene la boca grande - his/her mouth is big

Noun and adjective have to agree in number and gender.

Tiene los ojos azules - he/she has blue eyes

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Describing personalities

Cariñoso/a = affectionate

Simpático/a = nice

Animado/a = lively/cheerful

Despistado = absentminded

Divertido/a = entertaining

Tranquilo/a = calm

Alegre = cheerful

Bueno = kind

Generoso/a = generous

Serio/a = serious

Callado/a = quiet

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Personal pronouns (plural)

Nosotros/nosotras = we

Vosotros/vosotras = you

Ustedes = you

Ellos/ellas = they

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Ser (to be)

Yo soy = I an

Tú eres = you are

Él/ella, usted es = he/she is, you are

Nosotros/nosotras  somos = we are

Vosotros/vosotras sois = you are

Ellos/ellas, ustedes son = they are, you are

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Plural of adjectives

The general rule for forming the plural of adjectives is to add -s to those ending in an unstressed vowel and -es to those ending in a consonant.

VOWEL + -S  

Los abuelos del club son muy simpatáticos = The grandparents at the club are very nice.

Las novelas españoles son muy interesantes = Spanish novels are very interesting

CONSONANT + -ES

Los abuelos del club son muy acogedores y no son muy mayores = the grandparents at the club are very welcoming and they are not very old.

CONSONANT Z + ES = CES

Mi abuela es feliz = my grandmother is happy

Las abuelas del pueblo son alegres y felices = the grandmothers in the village are cheerful and happy

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Español de bolsillo

¿Cómo eres? = What are you like?

Soy bastante simpático y muy alto = I am quite nice and very tall

¿Cómo es usted? = What are you like?

Soy morena y tengo los ojos negros = I have dark hair and dark eyes

¿Cómo sois? = What are you like?

Somos muy alegres = We are very cheerful

¿Cómo son ustedes? = What are you like?

Somos un poco tercos y bastante despistados = We are a little stubborn and quite absent-minded.

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Clothes

Pantalones = trousers

Camisa = shirt

Zapatos = shoes

Abrigo = coat/jacket

Falda = skirt

Jersey = jersey/jumper 

Vestido = dress

Sombrero = hat

Sandalias = sandals

Vaqueros = jeans

Gafas de sol = sunglasses

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Llevar (to wear)

The verb commonly used for talking about what someone is wearing is llevar, which is a regular verb. This can be used on its own or followed by a definite or indefinite article.

¿Qué ropa llevas...? = What do you wear...?

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Colours

***** = black

Verde = green

Rojo = red

Amarillo = yellow

Azul = blue

Rosa = pink

Gris = grey

Marrón = brown

Blanco = white

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Español de bosillo

¿Qué ropa lleva? = What clothes is he/she wearing?

Lleva unos pantalones negros = He's wearing black trousers

Lleva unas gafas de sol = He's wearing sunglasses

¿Qué ropa llevas al gimnasio? = What clothes do you wear for the gym?

Llevo un chándal rojo y unas zapatillas de deporte negras = I wear a red tracksuit and black trainers

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Possessive adjectives

Esa es mi prima Raquel = That's my cousin Raquel

Estas son mis primas Raquel y Juana = These are my cousins Raquen and Juana

Estas son nuestras primas Raquel y Juana = These are our cousins Raquen and Juana

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Plural possessive adjectives

Mi = mis

Tu = tus

Su = sus

Nuestro = nuestros

Nuestra = nuestras

Vuestro = vuestros

Vuestra = vuestras

Su = sus

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Español de bosillo

¿Y este niño?¿Quién es? = And who is this boy?

Es mi promo Luis = That's my cousin Luis

¿Y esta?¿Quién es? = And who's this?

Es mi hermana mayor = That's my eldest sister

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Numbers 0-15

0 = cero                    11 = once

1 = uno                     12 = doce

2 = dos                     13 = trece

3 = tres                     14 = catorce

4 = cuatro                 15 = quince

5 = cinco

6 = seis

7 = siete

8 = ocho 

9 = nueve

10 = diez

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Asking how many

¿Cuántos hermanos tienes? = How many brothers do you have?

¿Cuántas hermanas tienes? = How many sisters do you have?

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Tener (to have)

Yo tengo

Tú tienes

Él/ella, ustedes tiene

Nosotros/as tenemos

Vosotros/as tenéis

Ellos/ellas, ustedes tienen

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Español de bolsillo

¿Cuántos hijos tienes? = How many children do you have?

Tengo cinco hijos: dos niñas y tres niños

¿Cómo son tus hijos? = What are your children like?

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Using de to express possession

La casa de Patricio = the house of Patricio (Patricio's house)

El hijo de mi mujer = the son of my wife (my wife's son)

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Numbers 16-100

16 = dieciséis           27 = veintisiete           100 = cien

17 = diecisiete          28 = veintiocho

18 = dieciocho         29 = diecinueve

19 = diecinueve       30 = treinta

20 = veinte               31 = treinta y uno

21 = veintiuno          40 = cuarenta

22 = veintidós          50 = cincuenta

23 = veintitrés          60 = sesenta

24 = veinticuatro     70 = setenta

25 = veinticinco      80 = ochenta

26 = veintiséis        90 = noventa

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Expressing age

¿Cuántos años tienes? = How old are you?

Tengo 43 años = I am 43 years old

Mi hermano tiene 25 años = My brother is 25 years old

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Asking for and giving telephone numbers

¿Cuál es tu número de teléfono? = What's your phone number?

¿Tienes teléfono? = Do you have a phone number?

¿Cuál es el (número de) teléfono de...? = What is the phone number for...?

When giving phone numbers, group the digits in pairs, if it is uneven, the first is given separately.

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How to spell out an email address

An email = un correro, un email or un mail

¿Cuál es tu dirección de correo electrónico? = What is your email address?

¿Cuál es tu email? = What is your email?

¿Tienes mail? = Do you have an email address?

@ = arroba

. = punto

- = guión

_ = guión bajo

/ = diagonal

\ = diagonal invertida

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How to write a postal address

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , (primero, segundo, tercero, cuarto) tells you which floor (piso)

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , (primera, segunda, tercera, cuarta) tells you which door (puerta)

Alfonso 

Calle Mirambeles (name of street), numero 23, 3 (floor), 2 (door)

07500 (postcode) Manacor (city)

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Ordinal numbers

Primero | Primera

Segundo | Segunda

Tercero | Tercera

Cuarto | Cuarta

Quinto | Quinta

Sexto | Sexta

Séptomo | Séptima

Octavo | Octava

Noveno | Novena

Décimo | Décima

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Questions with ordinal numbers

¿En qué piso vives? = Which floor do you live on?

En el cuarto (piso) B = On the fourth (floor) B

¿En qué planta vives? = Which floor do you live on?

En la cuarta (planta), segunda puerta = On the fourth (floor), second door

Primero and tercero lose the -o when used before a masculine noun:

¿En qué piso vives? En el tercero

¿En qué piso vives? En el tercer piso

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Interrogative words

¿Cómo es tu oficina? = What is your office like?

¿Dónde trabajas? = Where do you work?

¿Qué escribes? = What are you writing?

¿Quién es el director? = Who is the director?

¿Cuál es tu dirección? = What is your address?

Cuál literally means which, but ¿Cuál es...? usually means what is

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Rooms

Dormitorio = bedroom

Comedor = dining room

Cocina = kitchen

Salón = living room

Cuarto de baño = bathroom

Pasillo = hall

Entrada = entrance

Terraza = terrace

Planta baja = basement

Primera/segunda planta = first/second floor

Ático = attic

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Using adjectives to describe a room

Cómodo = comfortable        Incómodo = uncomfortable

Luminoso = light                  Oscuro = dark

Acogedor = welcoming        Frío = cold

Bonito/lindo = pretty            Feo = ugly

Amplio = large                     Pequeño = small

Tranquilo = quiet                 Ruidoso = loud

Lujoso = luxurious              Sencillo = simple

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Different words for rooms

The wiords habitación and cuarto are used in a general sense to refer to any room in the house, but they can also mean 'bedroom', for which the precise word is dormitorio in Spain, pieza in parts of Latin America, and recámara in Mexico.

Sometimes English words are used to refer to rooms in a house; for example, el living in South America for el salón or la sala de estar. Baño is also a common abbreviation for cuarto de baño.

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Using adjectives to describe a home

                                          M                                     F

Singular                 un piso pequeño             una casa antigua

Plural                    unos pisos pequeños      unas casas antiguas

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Using intensifiers

Muy = very

Bastante = fairly

Un poco = a little

NO + VERB + NADA  + ADJECTIVE

La casa de mis papás no es nada ruidoso = my parents' house isn't at all noisy

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Using exclamations

¡Qué bonito! = How beautiful!

¡Qué horrible! = How horrible!

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Specifying requirements, needs and wishes

Necesito una casa grande = I need a big house

Quiero un aoartmento en Benidorm = I want an apartment in Benidorm

DEBE + INFINITIVO

La casa debe estar cerca del centro = the house must be close to the centre

TIENE QUE + INFINITIVO

El hotel tiene que ser barato = the hotel has to be cheap

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Español de bolsillo

¿Qué quiere alquilar? = What do you want to rent?

Quiero un apartmento en la playa = I'd like an apartment on the beach

Debe tener visitas bonitas = It must have beautiful views

Necesito un piso en el centro = I need a flat in the centre

Tiene que tener tres dormitorios = It has to have three bedrooms

No debe ser caro = It mustn't be expensive

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Hay (there is/there are)

Hay un espejo = there is a mirror

Hay una cama = there is a bed

Hay unos libros = there are some books

Hay unas sillas = there are some chairs

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Objects in rooms

Puerta = door                       Ventana = window

Silla = chair

Espejo = mirror

Lámpara = lamp

Alfombra = rug

Ordebador = computer

Mesa = desk

Mesilla = bedside table

Cama = bed

Estante = bookshelp

Armario  = wardrobe

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Estar (to be)

Yo = estoy

Tú = estás

Él/ella, usted = está

Nosotros/as = estamos

Vosotros/as = estáis

Ellos/ellas, ustedes = están

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Numbers from 100

100 = cien                                             800 = ochocientos/as

101 = ciento uno/a                                900 = novecientos/as

110 = ciento diez                                  1000 = mil

122 = ciento veintidós                          1.300 = mil trescientos/as

154 = ciento cincuenta y cuatro           2000 = dos mil

200 = doscientos/as                             1.000.000 = un millón

300 = trescientos/as                             2.000.000 = dos millones

400 = cuatrocientos/as

500 = quinientos/as

600 = seiscientos/as

700 = setecientos/as

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