Public Health Interventions
Another way of reducing addictive behaviours could be to actually reduce the amount of nicotine in cigarettes.
This could reduce smoking addictions because le** nicotine will ultimately result in le** satisfaction experienced by the smoker
A problem with this type of intervention is that smokers may decide to smoke more to compensate.
BENOWITZ ET AL. (2007) carried out a study where participants experienced a gradual reduction in the amount of nicotine in their cigarettes. They found that at the end of the trial 25% of the participants immediately stopped smoking. Furthermore, none of the patients increased the amount they smoked.
TENGS ET AL (2005) also carried out some research predicting that there would be an 18% decline (from 23 – 5%) in smoking in the US over a six year period.
The smoking ban
Banning smoking in public places is one way of reducing smoking addiction. It is hoped that it will reduce the likelihood of cues becoming associated with smoking.
It is however a worry that this will not deter people from smoking; it will simply encourage them to smoke and drink in their own homes. Another worry is that a smoking ban could also lead to a sense of solidarity between smokers.
- ELTON AND CAMPBELL (2008) carried out a questionnaire survey in the UK before and after the ban and they concluded that the smoking ban did not seem to reduce the number of people smoking, + but that it did reduce the number of heavy smokers.
- WEST (2009) also carried out some research showing that attempts to stop smoking were greater in the 9 months leading up to the no smoking ban, than in the 17 months after it was introduced.
MEZIES AT AL (2006) tested the lung function of bar staff one month before the ban and again two months after the ban was introduced and found significant improvements in their health
- - improved lung function by 10%
- - symptoms related to passive smoking reduced by 30%
- - reduced levels of nicotine in the blood
+ PELL ET AL (2008) showed that following the ban in Scotland there had been a 17% year on year drop in hospital admissions for heart attacks.
+ SEMPLE ET AL (2007) analysed the saliva of 39 non-smoking workers before and after the Scottish smoking ban was introduced and found that there was a 75% reduction in cotinine (a by-product of nicotine).
Some argue that advertising inevitably portrays smoking to be a positive and attractive thing to do. If this is true, then it would be logical to suggest that advertisements should not be allowed. In 2003, cigarette advertising in the UK was actually .
Research carried out in Finland (PEKURINEN, 1989) found that there was a significant reduction in cigarette consumption after a total ban on cigarette advertising.