public health

ideas 1 government shud force councils to clean up thir towns

2some thought government shouldnt interfere - attitude LAISSEZ-FAIRE.

3LOCAL AREAS SHUD CONTROL THEIR OWN AFFAIRS

4Local ratepayers made all decisions -they didnt want the government t make them pay 4 the improvements.

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edwin chadwick 1842

report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring population

1842 chadwick was asked by govern to report on living conditions & health of poor.

conclusions - poverty was caused by ill health- which was caused by terrible living conditions in which people lived.

- said ratepayers cud cut their taxes & save money in long term  by looking after poor & spending money on improving health . Report said

1 organise drainage & refuse collection

2 Provide pure water supply

3 Appoint a medical officer

30 years of arguing followed Towns Liverpool Manchester Leeds did start t build sewage systems

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public health act 1848

1848

- nothing done ar 1st re report chadwick

- CHOLERA OUTBREAK -- put pressure on government

- PUBLIC HEALTH ACT PASSED .

PHA- not compulsory , set up board of health to encourage local autho to improve conditions .

- gave local auth moneyto make improvments- if they had support of ratepayers

- only a few local auth did new measures

1872 50 medical officers of healthappointed

1854 board health abandoned

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1853 john snow

- Snow - link between cholera & water supply- research observation used- door - to - door interviews- buil mapof cholera epic

- he put pressure on water companies t clean up there supply

1858 Great sTINK

- YEARS OF HUMAN WASTE IN lONDON tHAMES

1858 HOT WEATHER CAUSED STINK - SMELT BY PARLIA MENT- who thought about moving /coat thir curtains in deodrant

- WITHIN 1 YEATR sIR jOSEPH bAZALGETTE BEGAN BUILDING EXTENSIVE SYSTEM OF SEWERS & DRAINS - STILL THEIR TODAY

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REFORM ACTS

1867 second reform act

working class men given vote & not just ratepayers wh0 had a say 7 - knew victims of poverty

-MP s forced to improve living conditions of poor

1875 second public health act

unlike 1848 local authorities now forced to follow measures

1 provide clean water---2proper drainage & sweage--3 appoint med officer of health

1861 Louis Pasteur published germ theory proving link between dirt & disease- scientific  proof - people will to pay taxes for reforms

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other factors & results og 1875 public health act

statics -unhealthy towns shamed into action - government publish stats showing wher death rate highest  & what people died of -

Cholera outbreaks -returned 1865 - john snow proved links dirty water =disease forcing ratepayers to take action

weaken of Laissez Faire - Government realised they had to take action - cud not leave it to councils or individuals - moral code results of pub health act 1875- improved standards of housing

stopped the pollution of rivers from which people got water

 shortened working hours in factories for women & children

made it illegal to add ingredients that made  food unhealthy

education compulsory ( compulsory sanitation 1875 )

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20th century - war ww1

WAR 1 - surgeons had opportunity to practice eg repair -perform skin grafts - pastic surgury

- soldiers promised good housing on return - slums cleared

surgury of eye -ear- nose - throat rapidly improved - brain surgeryu advanced

X Rays  DISC 20YRS BEFORE WAR -

HOSPITALS = MACHINES more were manufactured - installed along western Front

xrays- improved success of surgeons - removing bullets sh previously wud have caused infections  .

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blood tranfusions & Penicillin

1901 karl Landsteiner - discoverd succesful transfusions - ww1 vast amnts of blood needed - soldiers were bleeding to death in trenches -before blood cud get to them

doctors discovered how blood can be bottled - packed in ice & stored - this saved many lifes  ,

CHANCE FINDING = PENICILLIN

1928  fleming whilst cleaning culture dishes - by chance a fungal spore had landed & grown in dish - he noticed colonies of bacteria around the mould had stopped growing . The FUNGUS was identified & called Peniciin - it produced a substance killing bacteria ( Fleming couldnt advance this work )

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PENICILLIN - Florey & Chain

1930 s x2 oxford scientists Florey & cHAIN WERE INTERESTED IN flemings paper

FACTORS LEADING TO PENCIILLIN DEVELOPMENT

- 1 1939 3 days after ww2 - growing casualities added to urgency

2 GB government to fund penici research+ US govern funded mass production

3 technology - microscopes & bacteria growing mediums

4 chance- - Fleming discovered pen in 1928

5 Florey Chain =skilled scientists & team of researchers + tested on mice

british chemical firms 2 busy making explosives to start mass prod so Florey =USA

1944 mass production of penicillin - Fleming -Florey - Chain NOBEL PRIZE 1945 

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ww2 impact on medicine

Blood Transfusions - blood stored longer -civilians donated blood

diet - rationing improved diet - healthy eating encouraged

drugs - developed as 1st antibiotic

poverty evacuation of children to urban areas - contrast between rich & poor

Surgery - now use of skin grafts & burn traetment

Hygiene- Government poster educated people on Hygiene 

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NHS - influence of WW2

social differences - broke - people together in war

raising armies - powerful people notice health probs of poor

evacuation - increas awareness of disadvantaged

after ww2 people wanted improvements/change  leading t LABOUR VICTORY 1945

sIR wILLIAM bEVERIDGE PUBLISHED fAMOUS bEVERIDGE REPORT 1942

HE CALLED FOR STATE PROVISION TO BE FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE .

NAtional insurance intrduced to pay for NHS

DOCTORS & DENTIST WOOFOR FIXED PAY PER PATIENT

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