Public Health in Ancient Egypt
Essentially, public health in Ancient Egypt was non-existent. The Pharaoh and his government did nothing to protect the people from illness. However, Egyptians took great care to stay clean, most likely due to their religion, and washed twice a day, every night and before meals. They used soda, scented oil and ointments as soap, and women even shaved their bodies and wore eye make up.
Excavations show that richer homes contained a room for washing, but they had no plumbing to bring water in and out. People bathed by having servants pour water over them from a jug, and the waste water ran away through a hole in the wall or into a sunken vase on the floor.
Toilets for the poor were wooden stools with a hole above a cup half fuilled with sand. Richer families had a limestone seat over a bowl standing in a pit- but all of them had to be emptied by hand.