Psychopathologys

Phobias

Definiton: An anxiety disorder. instances of irrational fears that produce a conscious advoidance of the feared stimulus or situation.

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Behavioural characteristics

avoiding stimulus or situation completely

freezing or fainting in fear 

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Emotional.

persistant and obvious fear- excessive & unreasonable

anxiety & panic

cured by presence or anticipation of ceratin objects or situations

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cognitive

irrational thought process 

identify own behaviour as irrational 

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two process model

classical conditioning: phobia is initiated through association

operant conditioning: phobia is maintained via rewarding outcomes when behaviour is repeated 

Proposed by Mowrer

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Systematic desensitisation

-Taught relaxation techniques

- Create desensitisation hierarchy each one causing more anxiety than pervious one.

-Gradually work through hierarchy. Visualiising each anxiety and using relaxation techniques 

-Once mastered each step move onto next one. have to remain in relaxed state.

-Master feared situation 

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Evaluation

Effectiveness supported by research

useful for people who lack insight e.g. children 

there are quicker alternatives 

may suffer from symptom substitution 

vivo techniques rely on imagination may not be effective 

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Flooding

Taught how to relax muscles

Remain in vivo or vr situation until calm either through using relaxation techniques or adrenaline levels naturally decreasing 

master feared situation 

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Evaluation

relatively quick

effective if done correctly 

may suffer from symptom substitution 

highly traumatic 

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Depression

Definition: Mood disorder that makes feel sad and/or lack interest in usual activities 

irrational negative thoughts

raised or lowered activity levels 

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Symptoms

-low mood

-inability to get out of bed

-anxiety

-sadness

-low self esteem

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Emotional

feelin guilt-ridden

feeling hopeless & helpless

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Behavioural

Disturbed sleep

lack of energy

change in appetite 

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Cognitive

difficulty concentrating 

continuous low mood or sadness 

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Becks negative triad

1. negative view of self (i am undeserving)

2. negative view of world (its a hostile place)

3. negative view of future (i will always be useless)

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Ellis's ABC model

A. an activating event 

B. an individuals beliefs- rational/irrational]

C. a consequence

The irrational thinking may produce undesirable behaviours

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Musturbatory thinking

thinking certain ideas must be true in order to be happy

1. i must be approved of/ accepeted by people i find important 

2. i must do well or i am worthless

3. world must give me happiness or i will die

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Evaluation

treatments based on cognitive approach are effective 

found people with depression/anxiety do have irrational/ negative thought patterns

faulty thinking may be consequence of mental condition rather than cause 

negative thinking may be realistic & reasonable

blames individuals rather than sitiuational factors

doesnt consider why/how developed faulty thinking

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Cognitive Behavioural therapy (CBT)

Therapist helps client identify particularly negative thoughts 

challenges negative thoughts by introducing positive incidence 

behavioural component is in setting small achievable goals to boost self-effectiveness

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REBT

challenges irrational thoughts & maladaptive behaviour

maintain negative & self defeating themselves how inadequate they are 

client & therapist work together to identify situations that produce negative emotions

Therapist challenges these thoughts 

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Challenging irrational thoughts

DEF-Ellis

D. disputing irrational thoughts

E. effects of disputing & effeective attitudes to life

F. new feelings that are produced

REBT focuses on challenging & disrupting irrational thoughts & replacing them 

- logical disputing: self defeating beliefs dont follow logically from available info

- empirical disputing: self defeating beliefs may not be consistent with reality

- pragmatic disputing: emphasing lack of usefullness of self defeating beliefs

set homework for patient that challenges truth of their irrational thoughts

unconditional positive regard: makes person feel worthy by providing respect & appreciation for client. 

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Evaluation

At least as effective as drugs

Ellis claims 90% success rate for REBT

Gives patient control over own condition 

Can be combined with other treatments 

Individual differences- less suitable for people who are resistant or experiencing levels of stress

CBT only works with drugs

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