Psychopathology: models, research and processes


Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned Stimulus = Unconditioned Response

Neutral stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus = Unconditioned Response

Conditioned Stimulus = Conditioned Response


NS + US = UR


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Systematic Desensitisation

STAGE 1. Patient is taught relaxtion techniwues and breathing exercises. This helps with Reciprocal Inhibition, if when in the presnece of the stimuli, the sufferer learns to be calm they cannot be anxious at the same time.

STAGE 2. Patient creates a fear hierachy of tehir phobia, from what causes the least anxiety (e.g thinking about stimuli) to what causes most anxiety (e.g touching stimuli). This is critical because it provides a structure for the therapy.

STAGE 3. Patient makes their way up the hierachy, whilst doing the relaxation and breathing exercises. When they feel comfortable they move onto the next stage in the hierachy, if they ever feel upset they can go back to previous stages.

STAGE 4. Patient repeatedly do the hierachy until the stimuli/situation fails to evoke any anxiety. This process is repeated until the patient overcomes the most anixety-provoking situation on their hierachy.

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Ellis' A-B-C Model of Depression

  • Focused on situations where irrational thouhgts are triggered by external events. Events like failing an important test or ending a relationship may trigger irrational beliefs....
  • Identified a rangw f irrational beliefs, musturbation, utopianism and 'i-cant-stand-it itis'

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Beck's Cognitive Model of Depression

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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression (CBT)

Encourages patiets to test their beliefs through behavioural experiments and homework.

STEP 1. Undergo an initial assessment

STEP 2. Patient will be set goals

STEP 3. Identify the patients irrational thoughts and challenge tehm using Beck's cognitive Therapy and Ellis' REBT

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Beck's Cognitive Therapy for Depression

  • Helps patient identify negative thoughts in relation to themsleves, the world and the future (using the TRIAD)
  • Challenge these irrational thoughts by discussing evidence for and against
  • Encourage patient to face thoughts an test the validity of the negative thought
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Ellis' Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy for Depr

  • Irrational beliefs disputed (argue with patient)
  • Logical dispute - questions the patients thoughts and seeks evidence (empirical dispute)
  • Sets patient homework to prove that their irrational belief is wrong
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OCD Cycle

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Stress-Diathesis Model

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