Psychology Unit 2 AS Learning Approach

the key aspects of the Learning approach

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Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning.

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)    ------------------>        Unconditioned response (UCR)

UCS + Neutral stimulus (NS)      ------------------->       Unconditioned Response (UCR)

Controled Stimulus (CS)             ----------------->          Conditioned Response (CR)

 

PAVLOVIS DOGS STUDY:

UCS (FOOD) ------> UCR ( SALIVATION)

UCS (FOOD)+ NS (BELL) --------> UCR (SALIVATION)

CS (BELL) --------> CR (SALIVATION)

FEATURES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING:

EXTINCTION ----> occurs when the association is no longer presented. After a while the response will no longer occur when the stimulus appears.

SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY -----> is the term for when, after extinction a previously conditioned response association reoccurs without more conditioning. the response to the stimulus recoccurs spontaneously.

SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION IS BASED ON CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES: replace phobia with a new association. Desensitise the individual as they are no longer sensitive to the phobia. Goes through steps creating a heirarchy with the top being the actual fear itself.  It teaches deep muscle relaxation so they can acheive the desired relax response. Chaning the CR response to the CS.

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FEATURES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING:

EXTINCTION ----> occurs when the association is no longer presented. After a while the response will no longer occur when the stimulus appears.

SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY -----> is the term for when, after extinction a previously conditioned response association reoccurs without more conditioning. the response to the stimulus recoccurs spontaneously.

SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION IS BASED ON CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES: replace phobia with a new association. Desensitise the individual as they are no longer sensitive to the phobia. Goes through steps creating a heirarchy with the top being the actual fear itself. It teaches deep muscle relaxation so they can acheive the desired relax response. Chaning the CR response to the CS.

 

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SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

SLT states that:  Children learn behaviour through observation and immitation of role models.

Real life case: Jamie Bulgar killers- copied the actions from the film childs play.

First the child will go through the four stages of observation:

  • attention- see their role models behaviour
  • rettention- re-watch their role models specific behaviour.
  • motivation- child will gain motivation to want to carry out the same behaviour.
  • reproduction- the child will then go out and reproduce the same behaviour.

It also states that children learn behaviour through VICARIOUS LERANING- which states that behaviour is can be learnt through watching others behaviour and seeing if they are being rewarded for that particular behaviour and if so they are likely to repeat this same behaviour. E.g. a gang applading a member for stealing.

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BOBO DOLL

BOBO DOLL STUDY- BANDURA,ROSS AND ROSS:

  • this study aimed to test this theory to see if children do immitate the behaviour of different role models. to see if the same sex role model had a greater impact. 
  • Sample of 72 children from the standford university nursery- 36 boys 36 girls.
  • split into 8 groups- some seeing same sex role model, others seeing opposite sex, some seeing aggressive role model, others non-aggressive role model and a control group who just went and played with the toys.
  • After observing the specific role model the child was given some toys and then told they weren't allowed to play with them which put them all in the same angry state before entering the room.
  • two observers blind to each group watched the childrens behaviour through a one way mirror noting down the specific behaviours shown.
  • found that those exposed to the aggressive role model were more likely to be aggressive towards the doll.
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BOBO DOLL

  • 1/3 who had witnessed aggressive condition copied the models behaviour
  • likewise those who saw non-aggressive role model more likely to be less violent.
  • children were more likely to copy the same sex role model.
  • males more physically aggressive
  • females more verbally aggressive.
  • concluded that aggressin can be learnt through observation of role models.
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KEY ISSUE

IS CHILDRENS BEHAVIOUR AFFECTED BY WHAT THE SEE AND HEAR IN THE MEDIA?

AO1:

  • Children are exposed to a lot of meida violence from a young age, as there is easy access to t.v's and internet.
  • due to this there is now a 9pm watershed. however there is a lot of concern regarding what the children observe in the media as it seems they are likely to immitate this same behaviour praised in films and video games- with the villains being seen as the 'cool' characters.
  • Jamie Bulgar's Killers and the Columbine killings are said to have been caused by children observing and immiating behaviour seen in the movies 'childs play' (JAMIE BULGAR KILLERS) and a video game.
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CONCEPTS, STUDIES & IDEAS:

  • SLT would suggest that it is possible for children to model behaviour from role modes of the T.V. they observe and imitate what they see and hear in the media.
  • Violent characters in the media may become childrens role models and so pay attention to their behaviour and want to reproduce the same behaviour (4 stages of observation)
  • it could be through vicarious learning, where they see their role models being rewared for aggressive behaviour on the T.V and video games (going up a level for killing a certain amount of people).
  • Bandura, Ross and Ross - demonstrated thsi when they found that children observes an adult playing with a bobo doll aggressively and the children were more likely to immitate this behaviour.
  • Eron and Huesman found that people wo watch more violent T.V in childhood were more likely to be violent in adulthood- however this is a correlational design therefore there is no cause or effect.
  • operant conditioning- not punished or negatively reinforced on violent behaviour from an early age the the behaviour may continue.
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OPERANT CONDITIONING

When children learn behaviour through reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement ----> Something good is given in response to a desired behaviour so that that specific behaviour will be repeated. E.g giving a child sweets for playing nicely with another child.

Negative Reinforcement ----> Something bad/ undesired is taken away from the child so that the behaviour will be repeated. E.g. rmoving a child from the naughty step once they have expressed desired behaviour.

Punishment ----> Something undesired is given to the child so that that specific behaviour will stop and wont be repeated again. E.g. putting a child on a naughty step.

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OPERANT CONDITIONING

The child will be given either a primary reinforcer or a secondary reinforcer when being reinforced:

Primary Reinforcement ---> Reward is a child basic needs E.g food or water

Secondary Reinforcement ----> Something you can use to buy or get your basic need e.g money.

TOKEN ECONOMY IS BASED ON OPERANT CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES! rewarding prisoners behaviour by giving them tokens in which they can exchange for someting desired such as an extra phone call home.

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