Stratigies for Memory Improvement ...
- Paying attention
- Elaborative Rehersal
- Avoid interference
- Using Mnemonics
Simply repeating information over and over only contains it in the STM, in order for this information to transfer successfully in to LTM, more elaborate forms of rehearsal are needed. the information needs to be made meaningful:
- by linking it to pre existing knowledge
- linking to memories
Participants learnt a list or 112 words. The experimental group were given the words organized in hierarchy, and the control group were given the words randomly. The experimental group recalled 65% The control group recalled 19%
Bower and Clark:
asked to recall 12 lists of 10 unrelated words, those that organized them in a story recalled 90%, those with no strategy recalled 10%.
Evaluation: - lacks realism
But the principle remains by organizing topics the meaningfulness of the material increases and its easier to remember.
Method of Loci
You identify a set of familiar places that you can imagine walking through (your house). The number of familiar places you choose depends on the number of things you need to remember. convert each item you want to remember into an image and place it in a location eg. eggs smashed on the hall floor. When you need to recall everything you walk through the various locations used.
* the locations act as retrival cues because they are already well known.
The retrival cues are a set of learned 'pegs', an example is learning a set of objects that ryhme with 1-20, after you've learned these convert each item you wish to remember into an image and imagine it with th peg word. The 'pegs' act as retrival cues.