Turning to Crime
- Disrupted families; Farrington et al- cambridge study in Delinquent Development
- Learning from others; Sutherland, theory of differential Association
- Poverty and disadvantaged neighbourhoods; Wikstrom+Tafel, the peterbrough Youth study
- Criminal thinking patterns; Yochelson + samenow, study of thinking patterns in criminals
- Moral development; Kohlberg, Moral Development in Children
- Social cognition; Gujohnsson and Bownes, Attribution of blame and type of crime committed
- Brain dysfunction; Raine, understanding social development
- Genes and serotonin; Brunner, Study of vionlence in a family with genetic abnormality
- Gender; Daly and wilson, investigation of gender-related life expectancy
farrington et al, The cambridge Study in Deliquent
Aim; document the start, duration + end of offending behaviour + Investigate the influence of life events.
Desgin; Longitudinal study + interviews
Participants; 411 boys aged 9 & 8, from 6 schools in East London. white class
- at 48, 161 had convictions
- Offences peaked at age 17
- those who started criminal careers at age 10-13 were nearly all reconvicted at least once and committed 9 crimes on average.
- self-reported crimes not covered by oiffical statistics indicates that 93% admitted to commiting one type of offence.
Conclusion; Offenders tend to be deviant in many aspects of their lives. Early preventation reduces offending could have had benefits. Most important risk factor; family, poverty, poor child-rearing and poor school saving.
Sutherland, Theory of differential Association
Priciples of Criminology;
- criminal behaviour is learned- behaviour cannot be inherited or a result of any other biological condition.
- Criminal behaviour is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication- commuiation usually involves verbal interaction, it could also use genstures without words
- Principal part of the learning of criminal behaviour occurs within intimate personal groups- Intimate personal groups provided the largest influence on the learning of criminal behaviour
- The learning environment includes the techniques of commiting the crime, which are sometimes very complicated- criminals have to lern the tricks of the trade from someone first
- specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favourable or unfavourable- Some groups may see laws as pointless or discriminatory and therefore feel they flaunt them.
- differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority and intensity- a precise desciption a persons criminal behaviour would be possible
- Process of learning criminal behaviour by association with criminal and anti- criminal patterns involves all of the mchanisms that are involved in any other learning- criminal behaviour is learned just like every other behaviour.
- while criminal behaviour is an expressio of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values- a theif steals in order to get money, however such an actio is not different from in the work of hoest labourer.
- devience occurs when people define a certain human situation as an appropriate occasion for violating social norms
- definitions of the situation are acquited through an indviduals past experiences.