PSYCHOLOGY REVISION CARDS

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AIMS + CONTEXT OF MILGRAM

  • Milgram is JEWISH
  • Interested by the nazi soldiers defence at the NUREMBURG TRIALS after the HOLOCAUST..."just following orders"
  • The theory that GERMANS ARE DIFFERENT was suggested.. Authoritarian Personality
  • ARENDT proposed that Eichmann (creator of the final solution) was just a "cog in the machine"

    Milgram wanted to...

  • test the proposal that "germans are different" 
  • see if ORDINARY PEOPLE would obey authority even when requested to injure another person
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LANGER + RODIN PROCEDURE

  • 91 residents aged 65 - 90 from a high quality nursing home in CONNETICUT 
     
  • RESPONSIBILTY INDUCED GROUP (RIG)
    8 males 39 females 
     in this condition (4th floor)
     
  • TRADITIONAL GROUP (CG)
    9 males 35 females  in this condition (2nd floor)
     
  • Both groups given a STANDARDISED MESSAGE by the nursing home administrator before the experiment started
  • Residents were ASSESSED one week BEFORE the experiment and 3 weeks AFTER 

QUESTIONAIRE RATINGS...

  • nurses (rated how happy, alert, dependent, sociable & active residents were
  • patients (how dependant they felt) 
  • Occupational Therapist measured behaviours; eg attendance to a movie. 
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FINDINGS + CONCLUSIONS RAHE MAHAN + ARTHUR

  • THE ONLY SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP WAS BETWEEN the LCU score for the six months immediately prior to departure and the illness score... It had a positive correlation of +0.118
  • THIS CORRELATION WAS MORE APPARENT IN.. the married men category as opposed to the young single sailors
  • OVERALL TOTALS WERE CALCULATED BY putting the p's LCU score in order of low - high and splitting the list into ten bands
  • LCU BANDS 1&2... had a mean illnes rating of 1.405
  • LCU BANDS 9&10... had a mean illness rating of 2.066
  • Higher LCU's in the six moths prior to their departure resulted on higher illness rates onboard.
  • When pre departure LCU was low, so were on board illness rates.
  • HOWEVER..stressful on board experiences increase on board illness ratings for the whole crew
  • The link is stonger for older men
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EVALUATE METHODOLOGY OF ASCH

LAB EXPERIMENT

  • variables are easily controlled
  • standardised procedure
  • trivial test: no desire to voice own opinion
  • subject to demand characteristics and experimenter bias 

VALIDITY

  • lacks internal validity, not all p's would believe it's"perception" study.

SAMPLE

  • 123 p's good sanoke size
  • ETHNO and ANDRO centric

ETHICS

  • Decieved participants of the aim.. no informed consent
  • Pressure of dissagreeing with a group distressing
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ALTERNATIVE EVIDENCE OF LOFTUS + PALMER

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