Research key terms 1
Natural experiment: IV (e.g. stressor of exams) is naturally occurring, no experimental control, researcher takes advantage of a natural change in this
Sampling technique: A method used to choose a sample of a population. Examples include, random sampling, opportunity sampling, stratified sampling, snow ball sampling and self-selected sampling
Independent measures design: If two groups in an experiment consist of different individuals
Repeated measures design: A longitudinal study, usually a controlled experiment but sometimes an observational study
Quantative data: Numbers, produces numerical data
Qualative data: Language, produces verbatim
Correlational design: A research design that measures two or more naturally varying variables. It does not manipulate any of the variables
Self selecting sample: People who responded to an advertisement
Research key terms 2
Opportunity sample: Anyone you can get hold of
Selective sample: The researcher selects someone from a pool of people to get the type of person they want
Independent measures design: Participants are split into conditions e.g. exam stress or no exam stress
Repeated measures design: Participants take part in all conditions e.g. exam stress and no exam stress
Work place stressors 1
6 key areas:
- Interpersonal conflict
- Work demands
- Physical environment
- Lack of control
- Role stress
- Role conflict
Individual differences: Lazurus (1995) came up with a ‘transactional approach’ which emphasises that the degree to which a workplace stressor is perceived as stressful depends on the person’s ability to cope. Therefore lack of control may be stressful to one person, but not to another – particularly those with a hardy personality.
Individual differences: Marmot and Franhenhauser stated that a lack of control was a source of stress in the workplace. However Schaubroeck (2001) found that some workers respond differently to a lack of control – they were less stressed by having no control or responsibility which could imply that something else is moderating whether or not potential work stressors do cause stress.
Work place stressors 2
Historical validity: The changing world of the work environment with the addition of new technology, virtual offices and the blurring of home/work environments could mean that our current knowledge of workplace stressors rapidly becomes out of date.
Validity of measuring the impact of workplace stressors: Keenen and Newton (1989) found that in a study assessing work stress in engineers, the use of interviews revealed stressors not usually covered by traditional questionnaires. Therefore, interviews instead of questionnaires might be a more valid way of assessing the presence of work place stressors than traditional questionnaires.