Psychology- Psychopathology Key Terms

Key terms covering abnormality

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  • Created by: Shauni
  • Created on: 25-05-12 16:21

Abnormality:

a psychological or behavioural state leading to impairment of interpersonal functioning and/or distress to others

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Deviation from Social Norms:

behaviour violating accepted social rules

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Failure to Function Adequately:

an inability to cope with day-to-day living

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Deviation from Ideal Mental Health:

failure to meet the criteria for perfect psychological well-being

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Cultural Relativism:

definitions of what is 'normal functioning' vary from culture to culture and are equally valid

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Biological Approach:

a model of abnormality perceiving mental disorders as illnesses with physical causes

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Psychiatry:

a branch of medicine dealing with the study, diagnosis and treatment of mental illness

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Neurotransmitters:

chemicals facilitating communication between brain and nerve cells

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Biochemistry:

the study of chemical processes in living organisms

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Genetics:

a branch of biology dealing with the transmission of inherited factors

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Psychodynamic Model:

a psychological approach perceiving mental disorders as arising from unresolved, unconscious childhood traumas

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Ego:

the irrational, conscious part of personality developing due to environmental interactions

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Id:

the irrational, pleasure-seeking, selfish part of personality present at birth

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Super-ego:

the moralistic part of personality seeking to block unnacceptable urges of the id

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Defence Mechanisms:

tactics developed by the ego to protect against anxiety

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Repression:

the unconscious exclusion of painful desires, fears and memories

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Behavioural Model:

a psychological approach perceiving mental disorders as abnormal behaviours

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Classical Conditioning:

a method of learning where innate reflexes become paired with other stimuli through repeated association

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Operant Conditioning:

a method of learning where the likelihood of a behaviour occurring is increased or decreased through the use of rewards

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Social Learning:

a method of learning occurring through the observation and imitation of others

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Cognitive Model:

a psychological approach perceiving mental disorders as due to negative thoughts and illogical beliefs

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Cognitive Triad:

the three types of illogical thought processes which result in irrational, negative feelings about oneself and lead to depression

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Biological Therapies:

treatments of abnormality based on the biological model

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Drug Therapy:

treatment of mental disorders with medicines

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ECT:

treatment of mental disorders by applying an electrical voltage to the brain

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Psychological Therapies:

treatments of mental disorders based on psychological rather than biological explanations

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Psychoanalysis:

a psychodynamic treatment of mental disorders, seeking to give patients insight into the origins of their disorders

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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy:

a cognitive therapy that challenges and restructures abnormal ways of thinking into useful, rational ones

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