- A measure of how much information can be held in memory.
- Measured in terms of bits of information, such as numer of digits.
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- A measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.
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- The way information is changed so it can be stored in memory.
- Information enters the brain via the senses (e,g. eyes and ears) and is then stored in various forms, such as visual codes (like a picture), acoustic forms (sounds), or a semantic form (the meaning of the experience).
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Long Term Memory (LTM)
- Memory for events that have happened in the past.
- Lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to 100 years.
- Potentially unlimited capactity.
- Semantically encoded.
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Short Term Memory (STM)
- Memory for immediate events.
- Lasts for a very short time and disappears unless it is rehearsed.
- Sometimes refered to as the working memory.
- Encoding - Acoustic.
- Capacity - 7 +/- 2 chunks.
- Duration - up to 18 seconds.
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- Miller proposed that the capacity of STM can be enhanced by grouping sets of digits or letters into meaningful units or 'chunks'.
- For example, it is easier to remember 100 1000 10 10000 than 10010001010000.
- Miller suggested that we can remember 7 +/- 2 chunks at a time.
- The size of a chunk may affect how many other chunks can be processed.
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Digit Span Technique
- A technique to assess the span of immediate (short-term) memory.
- Participants are given progressively more digits in a list to see how many can be recalled.
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Multi-Store Model (MSM)
- An explanation of memory.
- Based on three seperate memory stores.
- Shows how information is transferred between these stores.
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Sensory Memory Store (SMS)
- Information at the senses - informatin collected by your eyes, ears, nose, fingers and so on.
- Information is reatined for a very brief period by the sensory registers (less than half a second)
- Capacity of sensory memory is very large.
- Method of encoding depends on the sense organ involved, i.e. visual for the eyes, acoustic for the ears.
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- Monitors and coordinates all other mental function in WM.
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- Recieves input from many sources.
- Temporarily stores this information.
- Integrates it in order to construct a mental episode of what is being experience right now.
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- Encodes speech sounds.
- Involves maintenance rehearsal (repeating the words over and over again i.e. a loop).
- Divided into phonological store (inner ear) and articulatory process (inner voice).
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- Encodes visual information.
- Divided into visual cache (stores information) and inner scribe (spatial relations).
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- People remember lists of short words better than long words.
- Governed by the capacity of the phonological loop.
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Working Memory Model (WMM)
- An explanation of STM, called 'working memory'.
- Based on 4 components, some with storage capacity.
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Eyewitness Testimony (EWT)
- The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to idenitfying the perpetrator of hte crime.
- The accuracy of eyewitness recall may be affected during intitial encoding, subsequent storage and eventual retrieval.
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Leading (Misleading) Questions
- A question that, either by its form or content, suggests to the witness what answer is desired, or leads him to the desired answer.
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- Information given to witness after the event.
- Such as a leading question.
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- A nervous emotional state where we fear that something unpleasant is about to happen.
- People often become anxious when they are in stressful situations.
- Anxiety tends to be accompanied by physiological arousal (e.g. a pounding heart and rapid shallow breathing). Therefore research in this area is often focused on the effects of arousal.
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- A police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime.
- Based on what psychologists have found out about memory.
- Because our memory is made up of a network of associations rather than of discrete events, memories are best accessed using multiple retrieval strategies.
- Unlike a standard interview, the CI encourages witnesses to recreate the original context so as to increase the accessibility of stored information.
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