Psychology Core Studies

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  • Created on: 13-05-13 19:08

Social - Milgrim

Aim: To investigate how willing people would be to obey an authority figure when asked to inflict pain on another

Method: 

  • The participants were 40 male volunteers, the experimenter was a 31 year old male dressed in a lab coat
  • The subjects were told it was investigating the effects of punishment on learning
  • A rigged lottery made sure that the subject was always the teacher and the actor the learner
  • The learner was strapped into a chair with electrodes attached, the teacher was told to  give and electric shock for each wrong answer to a word association test, increasing the shock by 15 volts for each
  • The teacher and learner were in separate rooms, the learner communicated through  an answering device, giving standardised responses and frequent wrong answers
  • The experimenter acted sternly throughout, asking the learner to continue if they showed any reluctance to do so

Results: Obedience was greater than expected with 65% of participants reaching 450 volts, a lethal  level, during the experiment they showed characteristic responses such as sweating, trembling, biting lips and stuttering

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Social - Reicher and Haslam

Aim: To examine the behaviour of groups who are unequal in terms or power (Prisoners and Guards), also examining the conditions under which people do/don't assume their allocated roles

Method:

  • 15 males put into two groups, one being guards and the other being prisoners
  • Guards were told it was their responsibility to ensure the institution ran smoothly and to make the prison rules/punishments, they weren't given any guidance
  • The prisoners had their heads shaved, given uniforms with a prisoner number and put in 3-man cells
  • Three variables were manipulated: the prisoners belief that they could be promoted to guards, the belief that group differences weren't legitimate and a new prisoner being introduced on day 4 to provide the  skills required to organise a change
  • Data was collected through video and audio recordings, daily psychometric tests and saliva swabs to monitor cortisol levels
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Social - Reicher and Haslam

Results:

  • Prisoners identified with their roles while the guards didn't, they failed to form a group identity and impose their authority
  • When prisoners believed they could be promoted they tried to shows qualities for promotion, once roles were fixed they developed a group identity and challenged the guards
  • On day 6 they broke their regime and continued as a commune but the prisoners didn't cooperate, by day 8 the prisoners were proposing a more authoritarian system and the study ended
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Social - Pilliavin

Aim: To investigate helping behaviour: the effect of the speed and frequency of helping, the race of the helper, the type of victim (drunk or ill), the race of victim, the presence of helping models and the size of the witnessing group

Method:

  • The participants were the passengers on the New York subway, they didn't now about the experiment
  • A series of situations were staged, after 70 seconds a male victim staggered forward and collapsed, remaining on the floor until he received help
  • Three of the victims were white and one was black, each dressed and acted identically and all participated in the drunk and ill trials
  • Another male researcher acted as a model
  • Data was recorded by 2 female researchers, 103 trials were conducted in total, 38 drunk and 65 ill
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Social - Pilliavin

Results:

  • The frequency of help for the victim was high, often with more than one helper
  • Ill victims were more likely to get help and were offered help significantly more quickly than the drunk victim
  • Men were significantly more likely to help than women and there was a tendency of same-race helping
  • The longer the emergency continued, the less impact the model had and the more likely that bystanders were to leave the area
  • No diffusion of responsibility was found
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Physiological - Sperry

Aim: To investigate the effects of hemisphere disconnection on the lateralisation of functions

Method: 

  • A quasi experiment with 11 split-brain patients, all with a history of epilepsy
  • A specially designed apparatus to only show information to one hemisphere, the subject had one eye covered with their gaze fixed on a point in the middle of the screen
  • Stimuli was flashed for 1/10 of a second, too fast for the eye to see, depending on where on the screen the stimuli is presented the experimenter can control which visual field the information goes to, for some tests stimuli was sent to both visual fields at the same time
  • After the stimuli was presented the subject was asked questions about the stimuli, often being asked them to say or draw what they saw
  • For tactile tasks objects were placed in one of the subjects hands (which were screened from view) for sensory information to be received by only one hemisphere, then the subject has to find the object again with either the same or opposite hand
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Physiological - Sperry

Results: 

  • Hemisphere disconnection doesn't affect ordinary behaviour, intelligence or personality

-Visual:

  • When subjects were shown an image to one hemisphere and then the other, they would say they hadn't seen it before, if shown again the the first hemisphere they would recognise it
  • Subjects couldn't describe images that were only shown to the left hemisphere
  • When two symbols were shown simultaneously (a $ on the left and a ? on the right), they would draw a dollar sign and say 'Question mark'
  • When shown nude pictures they said they didn't see anything but they blushed, showing an emotional response, suggesting that the right hemisphere controls emotions
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Physiological - Sperry

Results:

-Tactile:

  • When an image is shown to the left hemisphere the subject could draw or point to an object/picture but not say nor write it
  • Objects put in the right hand were described with speech or writing whereas objects put in the left hand they would be unaware of what it is in words, or make wild guesses 
  • If an object was put in the left hand and then mixed up with other objects, only the left hand could find it again
  • When two different objects were placed in each hand at the same time, then removed and mixed up with other objects, each hand searched for it's own object. It was seen that if one hand found the other hand's object it would reject it before continuing to search for it's own object
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Physiological - Maguire

Background: Maguire found that racing pigeons had a larger hippocampi than normal pigeons

Aim: To investigate the role of the hippocampus in navigation and spatial skills and to what extent the brain shows changes when exposed to extensive navigational experiences, also to see if there is a correlation between the length of time taxi-driving and the volume of grey matter in the hippocampus

Method:

  • A sample of 16 licensed London taxi drivers, all right handed males that had been licensed for at least 18 months
  • A control sample of 16 right handed males that were non-taxi drivers chosen from a database of 50 brain scans
  • Data was collected using MRI scans as well as voxel-based morphology (VBM) and pixel counting
  • The MRI scans were used to look at regional differences in the grey matter density over the whole brain suing VBM and to obtain pixel counts of the hippocampus size
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Physiological - Maguire

Results:

  • VBM findings showed that taxi drivers have a significantly larger volume of grey matter in the right and left posteriors of the hippocampi compared to the control group
  • Pixel counting showed that there was a significant difference in the overall volume of the hippocampi of the taxi drivers compared to the control group
  • Also that the posteriors were larger in taxi drivers whereas the anteriors were larger in the control group
  • There was a positive correlation between the volume of the posterior hippocampus and time spent as a taxi driver and a negative correlation between the volume of the anterior hippocampi and time spent as a taxi driver

Explanations:

  • The London taxi drivers posterior hippocampus was larger due to their use of navigational skills which shows that the anterior and posterior hippocampi have different roles
  • This shows that the brain has plasticity as it changes in response to environmental demand
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Physiological - Dement and Kleitman

Aim: To investigate the relationship between eye movements (REM) and dreaming

Method:

  • The participants were 9 males, 5 of which were studies intensively
  • The participant reported to the sleep lab just before bedtime, they had been asked to avoid caffeine and alcohol
  • Electrodes were attached near their eye and scalp to measure movements and brain activity, these were attached to an EEG machine that ran throughout the night
  • The participant went to bed in a dark, quiet room in the lab, they were woken up various times during the night to test their dream recall
  • They woke up to a doorbell and spoke into a tape recorder near the bed, they had to state whether they'd been dreaming and the content of the dream
  • Two participants were woken randomly, one was woken at whim and one was woken during 3 REM periods followed by 3 non-REM periods (Study 1)
  • Participants were either woken at 5 minutes after REM began or 15 minutes after REM began and were asked if the dream ad lasted closer to 5 or 15 minutes (Study 2)
  • They were also woken as soon as one of 4 patterns of eye movements had occurred for 1 minute (Study 3)
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Physiological - Dement and Kleitman

Results:

  • More dreams were reported in REM sleep than non-REM sleep regardless of how they were woken up (Study 1)
  • The length of dream correlated with the length of REM with 45/51 correct after 5 minutes and 47/60 correct after 15 minutes (Study 2)
  • There was a very strong association between the patterns of eye movement and the dream content, e.g vertical eye movements associated with dreaming of ladders (Study 3)
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Cognitive - Loftus and Palmer

Aim: To see how information supplied after an event can change a person's memory of an event

Method: Experiment 1

  • 45 students watched 7 videos of different car crashes and after each they were asked to fill out a questionnaire that contained a critical question (How fast were the cars going when they.....together?)
  • The participants were divided into 5 groups, each having a different verb in the critical question: Smashed, Collided, Bumped, Hit or Contacted

Results: When the verb 'Smashed' was used the speed estimates were higher that when the other verbs were used

Conclusions:

  • Participants may have had demand characteristics and given the answer that the researchers wanted
  • The critical question caused actual distortion in the participants memory of the event
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Cognitive - Loftus and Palmer

Method: Experiment 2

  • 150 students split into 3 groups, they watch a video clip of a different car crash
  • Group 1 was asked 'How fast were the cars going when the smashed each other?'
  • Group 2 were asked 'How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?'
  • Group 3 weren't asked a critical question
  • A week later they were all asked if they had seen broken glass in the crash (There was no broken glass)

Results:

  • The majority of the participants said no when asked if they had seen broken glass, out of those who said yes most of them were in group one
  • This shows that the verb used in the original question had influenced whether the participants had thought they had seen broken glass or not

Conclusion: The results support the idea that leading questions may cause an actual distortion in a person's memory of an event

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Cognitive - Baron Cohen

Background: The Sally-Anne test is used to test whether children are Autistic or not by testing their theory of mind, but it won't work with adults as it's too simple

Aim: To find out if adults with Autism and Aspergers lack a theory of mind, also if females have a better theory of mind than males

Method:

  • It was a quasi experiment, three groups of participants were used: 16 with Autism or Aspergers, 50 normal and 10 with Tourettes as a control
  • There were 4 tasks: The eyes task, Happe's strange stories and two control tasks
  • The eyes task used 25 black and white photos of the eye region of faces, all of which were the same size
  • To go with the picture there were two words, one being a foil, the participants had to choose which word best describes what the person in the picture might be thinking or feeling (E.g Concerned and Unconcerned)
  • Happe's strange stories was another advanced test of theory of mind
  • The control tasks tested whether the participants could identify gender and emotion from whole faces 
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Cognitive - Baron Cohen

Results:

  • In the eyes task both the Normal and Tourettes group performed better that the Autistic group, in the Normal group females did better than males
  • In the Happe's strange stories task the Tourettes group made no errors, the Autistic group did make errors and were impaired compared to the controls
  • In the control tasks there were no differences between the groups

Conclusion: The Autistic and Aspergers adults performed poorly on this theory of mind test, despite having normal/above normal intelligence

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Cognitive - Savage Rumbaugh

Background: Gardener and Gardener showed that chimps have the ability to learn human language (sign language) but it was mainly imitation and mimicry

Aim: To study the language acquisition of two pygmy chimps (Bonobo's) and compare them to two common chimps that had been previously studied

Method:

  • A longitudinal case study involving four chimps, Kanzi and his sister Mulika were the pygmy chimps and the common chimps were Austin and Sherman
  • A keyboard of symbols called a lexigram was used for communication, each symbol corresponds to a certain object/place and lit up when pressed, Kanzi's keyboard was also connected to a speech synthesiser (when outside there was a laminated lexigram)
  • Gestures and sign language was also used
  • All utterances were recorded during the time period of the study using an automatic computerised record from the lexigram as well as notes from observers and videos, utterances were categorised as correct/incorrect and spontaneous/imitated
  • At the end of the study Kanzi and Mulika were also formally tested, matching the symbols to English as well as matching to symbols to words said by the speech synthesiser
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Cognitive - Savage Rumbaugh

Method: Continued

  • In addition to these formal tests, all four chimps took part in two other tests: matching symbols to photos and matching photos to symbols

Environment:

  • Both Kanzi and Mulika spent time with their mother Matata and observed her using the lexigram, though after some separation both chimps developed a preference for human company
  • Both the pygmy chimps and the common chimps were kept in a similar environment with an attachment to their carers, opportunities to watch and interact with people as well as watch TV, plus exposure to human speech and gestures, photographs, novel objects, types of formal tests and discipline
  • Though there were some major differences, Austin and Sherman were in a training setting whereas Kanzi and Mulika were in an observational setting
  • Sherman and Austin's lexigram didn't have a speech synthesiser as it was found they didn't understand spoken English
  • Sherman and Austin didn't use the lexigram outside the laboratory either
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Cognitive - Savage Rumbaugh

Results:

  • Kanzi and Mulika got the majority of the answers to all the formal tests correct, Kanzi doing slightly better than Mulika
  • Austin and Sherman got all answers correct for matching photos to the symbols but made a few mistakes matching symbols to pictures
  • Overall four main differences between the chimps were found:
  • Kanzi and Mulika understood the lexigrams easily and were able to use them spontaneously without training, unlike Austin and Sherman
  • Kanzi and Mulika were far more able to understand spoken English
  • Kanzi and Mulika were able to use the lexigram far more specifically (e.g differentiating between coke and juice) whereas Austin and Sherman used broader categories (e.g food)
  • Kanzi was able to refer to requests involving others while Austin and Sherman never formed requests in which someone other than themselves would benefit

Conclusion: The results suggest that the pygmy chimps show symbolic and auditory perceptual skills that are distinctly different from common chimps, differing greatly in their abilities to comprehend spoken speech, this finding minimises the significance of the behavioural differences between humans and apes

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Developmental - Samuel and Bryant

Background: Piaget

  • Looks at children's abilities to conserve, a basic test involving two rows of counters
  • First they are spread out the same and then one row is moved so that the counters are closer together, the children are asked if there are the same number of counters before and after transformation

Aim: To test the theory that asking the same question twice is the reason that the children failed to conserve in Piaget's experiment

Method:

  • 252 children from Devon split into four age groups, each age group was then split again into three groups and randomly assigned to one of three conditions
  • The three tasks were: 
  • Counters: both sets counters were spread out evenly pre-transformation but one was more spread out than the other post-transformation (Numbers)
  • Plasticine: Both blocks were square, the same size, pre-transformation but one was changed so that it was rectangular post-transformation (Mass)
  • Liquid: Both volumes of water were in the same size glass pre-transformation but one was put into a different shaped glass (taller and thinner) post-transformation (Volume)
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Developmental - Samuel and Bryant

Method: Continued

  • The three experimental conditions were:
  • Standard: The traditional two question conservation task as done by Piaget
  • One-judgement: The child is only asked the question once, post-transformation
  • Fixed Array: The child only sees the object post-transformation and is asked the question once
  • Each child did all three conservation tasks and each task was done 4 times
  • The finding were recorded as the number of errors made during the conservation tasks

Results:

  • There was a significant difference between the age groups, with the older children doing better than the younger children
  • The fixed array group made the most errors and the one-judgement group made the least
  • The volume task had the most errors, the number task having the least errors

Conclusion: This suggests that the children that fail the two question tasks do understand conservation but may produce the wrong answer due to being misled by being asked the question twice, also that children can conserve at a younger age than what Piaget stated

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Developmental - Freud

Oedipus Complex: The conflict between a boy's desire towards his mother and the associated fear that his father will punish him by castrating him

Aim: To report the findings of the treatment of a five year old boy's fear of horses

Method: A case study, all observations and almost all interview were conducted by Little Hans' father who corresponded to Freud through letters

Observations:

  • The first finding was that Hans had a fascination with his 'widdler', often playing with it, his mother told him to stop playing with it or she would call the doctor to cut it off
  • Hans also wanted his father 'out of the way' so that he could have his mother to himself, he resented having to share her with his father
  • He developed a fear of drowning in the bath (having previously been bathed in a baby bath), being frightened that if he was naughty his mother won't love him anymore and might let him drown
  • He also expressed jealousy towards his sister, wishing his mother to drop her in the bath so she would drown
  • Hans could have developed his fear of horses form two even, overhearing his father saying not to put his finger to the horse or it'll bite it and seeing a horse pulling a carriage fall and lie in the road, this made him fear that a horse was going to come in the room
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Developmental - Freud

Observations: Continued

  • His desire to see his mother's widdler increased so his father told him that women didn't have widdlers, Hans may have made an association between his mother's threat to castrate him and her lack of a widdler
  • Hans' had a dream about two giraffes, a big one and a crumpled, Hans took the crumpled one away form the big one and after a while the bog one stopped calling out for it
  • The father recognised this as a re-enactment of what had happened that morning when Hans climbed into bed with his parents, Freud believed that the big giraffe represented Hans father and the crumpled giraffe his mother
  • When Hans was asked about his fear of horses Freud suggested that the horse represented his father because Hans was frightened of his father as he was jealous of him
  • Hans mentioned the black on horses mouths and the blinkers on their eyes, Hans father had a moustache and wore glasses
  • Hans also mentioned seeing the horse fall down which led him to believe that all horse would fall down and die
  • Hans then developed a preoccupation with 'lumf' (German for faeces) and had the habit of following his mother or the maid to the bathroom until he was forbidden to do so, also comparing his sister to a 'lumf'
  • He had a fantasy involving a plumber, where the plumber came and took his his behind and widdler away, replacing them with bigger ones
  • In another fantasy he was the father of his own children, with his mother as his wife and his father as their grandfather
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Developmental - Freud

Results: Explanations

  • Little Hans wasn't aware of the motivations of his behaviour and was in the phallic stage of development
  • Analysis revealed that his anxieties about his mother and loaded carts and buses were due to his Oedipus complex, so were his fantasies
  • His fear of being bitten by horses came form his unconscious fear of his father castrating him
  • After psychoanalysis Hans was able to overcome his anxieties and acknowledge his feeling of resentment towards his father and sister, ceasing his desire for his mother
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Developmental - Bandura

Background: The social learning theory, states that we learn through observation

Aim: To see whether children will imitate aggressive behaviour even if they're in a different environment without a model

Method:

  • 72 children from Standford nursery split into three groups, two of these groups were split into 4 groups, the third being the control
  • There were also two adults 'models', a male and a female
  • Group one observed an aggressive model, group 2 a passive model and group three had no model
  • The four groups for each experimental group were: boys watching a male model, boys watching a female model, girls watching a male model and girls watching a female model
  • To ensure that each groups contained equally aggressive children  ratings were done on the children beforehand  by an experimenter that knew the children well as well as one of their teachers
  • The experiment was done in three phases
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Developmental - Bandura

Method: Continued

  • Phase 1:
  • The child was taken to a room, seated at a small table and encouraged to design a picture using potato prints and stickers, once settled the model was escorted to the opposite coroner where there was a small table, chair, tinker toy set, a mallet and the bobo doll
  • In the non-aggressive condition the model played with the tinker toys in a subdued manner and ignored the bobo doll
  • In the aggressive condition the model spent the first minute playing quietly but then turned to the bobo doll and spent the rest of the time being aggressive towards it, laying the doll on it's side and sitting on it,punching it on the nose, striking it with the mallet, throwing the doll in the air and kicking it
  • These aggressive acts were done three times and were accompanied by phrases such as 'Pow' and 'He keeps coming back for more'
  • In the control the experimenter returned to the room after 10 minutes telling the child it was time to go to another room
  • Phase 2: Before testing the children's imitation it was necessary to mildly provoke them
  • The children were taken to a room containing nice toys (fire engine, a fighter jet, a doll set with clothes ect) and allowed to play with the toys for two minutes, after they were told the toys were reserved for other children and the experimenter moved the child to the next room
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Developmental - Bandura

Method: Continued

  • Phase 3:
  • The new room contained a variety of toys, both aggressive (mallet, dart gun, bobo doll) and non-aggressive toys (tea set, crayons and paper, dolls)
  • The experimenter sat quietly in a corner while the child played for 20 minutes, the child was observed through a one-way mirror by the male model and sometimes another observer (the observer didn't know which condition the child was in)
  • The observers recorded what the child was doing  every 5 seconds, responses were recorded  in categories that provided an 'aggression score'
  • Imitative aggression responses: any specific acts that were imitated, aggressive phrases that were imitated (pow) and non-aggressive phrases such as 'he keeps coming back for more'
  • Partially imitative responses: using the mallet on toys other than the bobo and sitting on the bobo doll but not behaving aggressively
  • Non-imitative aggressive responses: striking, slapping and pushing the bobo doll, aggressive acts directed at toys other than the bobo, saying hostile things not said by the model and gun play
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Developmental - Bandura

Results:

  • Children in the aggressive model condition showed significantly more imitation of the model's physical and verbal aggression and non-aggressive speech than the other conditions
  • Those in non-aggressive conditions showed little aggression, but not always less than the control
  • Children who saw a same-sex model were more likely to imitate in some categories, boys more likely that girls
  • Girls in the aggressive model condition showed more physical aggression if the model was male and more verbal aggression if the model was female

Conclusion: The results support the social learning theory, the idea that behaviour can be acquired through observation and imitation

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Individual Differences - Rosenhan

Background: The DSM, designed to make the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses more reliable, Rosenhan disputed it's reliability and set out to prove it

Aim: To test the hypothesis that psychiatrists can't reliably tell the difference between those who are sane and those who are insane

Method:

  • 8 pseudo patients pretended to be mentally ill to try to get admitted into various psychiatric institutions across the USA, they all had various backgrounds ranging from psychologists to students and painters
  • The real patients and the doctor and nurses in the institution were also participants
  • Pseudo patients  called different hospitals to set up an appointment, they complained of hearing voices saying 'empty', 'hollow' and 'thud'
  • All were admitted into the institutions diagnosed with schizophrenia, they had been told to wait until they were discharged as 'normal'
  • The pseudo patients took notes of events in a covert matter, but later realised that it didn't matter if they hid the note taking or not
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Individual Differences - Rosenhan

Results:

  • The note taking was seen as pathological (part of the disorder)
  • Queuing for food was seen as a pathological disorder rather than the boredom it was
  • Many times the pseudo patients witnessed physical abuse of other patients and staff, Rosenhan said that this was due to powerlessness and depersonalisation which often happens in mental health hospitals
  • The pseudo patients tried to engage the staff in conversations but were often rejected or kept very brief
  • Average daily contact with staff and other residents combined ranged from 3.9-25.1 minutes, the average being 6.8 minutes
  • Everyone was charged with the label of schizophrenia in remission, the length of hospitalisation ranged from 7-52 days with a mean of 19 days
  • The hospital had made type 2 errors
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Individual Differences - Rosenhan

Method: Study 2

  • A furious hospital challenged Rosenhan to a re-run of the study
  • Over a period of time fake patients were sent to the hospital and the staff were told to rate them on a10-point scale, 1 being very confident that the patient is fake

Results: Study 2

  • In a 3 month period 193 patients were admitted
  • 41 were rated with a 1 by at least one member of staff
  • 23 were suspected to be fake by at least one psychiatrist
  • 19 were suspected to be fake by at least one member of staff and one psychiatrist
  • All patients were genuinely ill as Rosenhan didn't send any fake patients
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Individual Differences - Thigpen and Cleckley

Aim: To provide an account of the treatment of a 25 year old woman with multiple personality disorder

Method: A case study of 'Eve White' consisting of interviews, hypnosis, observations along with psychometric tests such as ink blots and IQ tests

Results: Observations

  • Even white had been referred due to severe headaches and the following blackouts
  • After the first interview a letter was sent that ended in a different handwriting but she denied sending the letter, though she recalled starting the letter but not finishing it
  • One session she put her hands on her head, as if in pain, and after a minute they dropped and she seemed to have changed into a carefree person, when asked her name she said she was Eve Black
  • This new person had a childish daredevil air and a mischievous glance, her voice and language structure were also very different
  • Over the next 14 months extensive material was collected about the behaviour and experiences of Eve White and Eve Black
  • It was found that Eve Black could sometimes 'pop out' when Even White was under hypnosis, and that Eve Black could change back to Eve White on request
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Individual Differences - Thigpen and Cleckley

Results: Continued

  • Eve Black talked about when she engaged in acts of mischief and disobedience that Even White was unaware of and got punished for, though Eve Black was aware of everything that happened to Eve White
  • Eve Black denied marrying Eve White's husband and denied any relationship to their daughter, during Eve Black's lover periods 'out' she would avoid family and friends and sought the company of strangers
  • Even Black was also able to remain undetected by imitating Eve White
  • Both personalities took psychometric test and it was found that Eve White had a higher IQ than Eve Black as well as superior memory function, though it was found that the profile of Eve Black was healthier than Eve White through ink blot tests
  • After a while Eve White became more aware of Eve Black and was able to repress her, though negotiation was needed so that Eve Black could still get more time 'out', after a while the blackouts ceased
  • However as treatment progressed the blackouts returned but Eve Black denied being responsible saying that she also experienced a lack of awareness during these periods
  • During hypnosis another personality arose, known as Jane, she was more responsible than Eve Black but more confident and interesting than Eve White
  • EEG tests were taken on all three personalities, Even Black stood out from the other two but it was difficult to distinguish between Eve White and Jane's EEG's
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Individual Differences - Thigpen and Cleckley

Results: Continued

  • Jane had an awareness of both Eves' thoughts and behaviour but she didn't have full access to all the memories prior to her appearance
  • Jane had learnt to take over many of Eve White's tasks at home to help and showed compassion to Eve White's daughter
  • Over time Jane became the dominant personalitiy and appeared well adjusted 
  • It was found that a possible cause of this multiple personality disorder could have been from the trauma of having to kiss her dead grandmother and it developed as a coping mechanism
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Individual Differences - Griffiths

Aim: To investigate whether there is a difference in the way regular gamblers think and behave compared to non-gamblers

Method:

  • A field experiment in a local amusement arcade
  • The participants were volunteers from advertising, 30 regular gamblers (29 male and 1 female) and 30 non-gamblers (15 male and 15 female), they were all tested individually
  • They were given £3 for 30 free goes and were told to keep playing until they'd had 60 goes, they all used the same fruit machine
  • Half the participants were randomly allocated to the thinking aloud group and the other half the not thinking aloud group
  • The ones thinking out loud had microphones attached to tape recorders and were told to say everything that came into their minds as they played
  • Each participant was observed on: the number of minutes they were on the machine, the total number of gambles, the amount of winnings and the results of each gamble
  • After the experiment each participant was asked about the level of skill required to play the game
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Individual Differences - Griffiths

Results:

  • There were no significant differences in the behaviour between regular and non-regular gamblers but the regular gamblers play rate was higher
  • Regular gamblers said more irrational comments than non-regular gamblers such as personifying the machine (e.g It stitches me up every time)
  • The regular gamblers thought that more skill was required to gamble than the non-regular gamblers
  • The gamblers in the not thinking aloud group played faster than those who were thinking aloud
  • The thinking out loud gamblers were often more quiet than the thinking out loud non-regular gamblers, maybe because the behaviour was more automatic
  • The gambling industry says that skill buttons don't increase winnings as they are purely chance
  • The belief that they can be learned is wrong
  • this is useful when trying to rehabilitate gamblers through CBT
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