The Atkinson and Shiffrin Model - 1968
Multi Store Model
- They suggested that memory is a process
- That the information we learn passes through a number of stores during the journey from short term memory to long term memory.
Sensory Memory. Sperling - 1960
Evidence for Sensory Memory
Sperling flashed 12 letters onto a screen for a second and on average people could remember 4/5 of these. When Sperling associated a certain sound with a certain row people could recall 3 from the appropriate row.
This suggests that the participants actually saw 9-10 of the potential 12 but image faded from sensory memory before the recall could take place.
Positive - in laboratory so highly controlled
Negative - artificial
No ethical issues
Three Separate Sensory Stores
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed three separate sensory stores.
- Iconic store for visual input
- Echoic store for auditory input
- Haptic store for tactile input
(tactile -what you feel)
- Items remain in the sensory memory for very short amounts of time (2 seconds)
- The information in the sensory memory is in an unprocessed form
- Information is passively registered in our sensory memory
- There are sensory stores for different senses
Short term and Long term memory
Short term memory
Capacity - very limited (approximately 7 items)
Duration - very limited
Encoding - mainly acoustic
Forgetting - mainly displacement
Long term memory
Capacity - unlimited
Duration - unlimited (up to a life time)
Encoding - mainly semantic (meaning)
Forgetting - mainly interference