Psychology Biological; P1

  • Stages of sleep.
  • Mental health.
  • Twin and Adoption studies.
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Main topics:

  • Localisation of function.
  • Sleep patterns and theories.
  • Survival of the fittest.
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  • Localisation of function - different parts of the brain control different behaviour.
  • survival of the fittest, evolution and adaptation - Darwin.
  • Rapid Eye Movement - Kleitman and Aserinsky, Low muscle tone.
  • Stages of sleep, Loomis, this includes five levels of sleep including, Rapid Eye Movement.
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  • Behaviour is influenced by genes.
  • Animal studies can tell us about human behaviour for example Apes brains are very similar to ours.
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  • Theories of sleep - Meddis - evolutionary theory of sleep.
  • Oswald - Restoration theory of sleep- we need sleep in order to survive and to restore muscle and tissue for example athletes.
  • Dopamine hypothesis (too much of it can cause schizophrenia).
  • Serotonin ( too little of it can cause depression).
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  • Laboratory experiments
  • case studies
  • correlation studies (twin and adoption studies)
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  • Therapies.
  • drugs.
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) - often used for depression and bi-polar, (it sends electric shocks).
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  • Sperry (used split brain patients in order to see what part of the brain functions for different behaviour and visual/language)
  • Peter Tripp (stayed awake for 201 hours, started hallucination, last 66 hours he was given drugs to stay awake)
  • Dement and Kleitman (investigated 9 participants Rapid Eye movement, avoid caffeine and alcohol, an EEG was used to record signals, at various times during the night the participants were woken up to test their dream recall, they were woken up by a loud doorbell, and then had to state if they had a dream and then explain the content of the dream. some correlation between the eye movement and dream and REM was present but not excessively. )
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