Explanations of attachment
'Attachment' - it is a strong bond (emotional) between two people, these are infants and their care giver.
EXPLANATIONS OF ATTACHMENT =
Attachments are learned = they are acquired by experiences.
Attachments are instinctive = they are biological.
BOWLBY'S THEORY OF ATTACHMENT =
6 key terms associated with Bowlby's theory of attachment:
- critical period (2+a half years of bonding)
- mother/permanent mother substitute (grow up with mother bond. -she needs to be available majority of the time)
- monotony (quality of attachment is not the same as with a mother)
- adaptive (passed through genes)
- social releases (behaviours that encourage relationships/care)
- internal working model (1st relationship you have will form a template for relationships in later life)
Evaluation of Bowlby's theory of attachment
RESEARCH SUPPORTING BOWLBY'S THEORY:
- HARLOW'S study of RHESUS MONKEY:(supporting critical period).
- - this study supports the idea of a critical period as the monkeys did not receive sufficient love or have a mother bond in the first two + half years,therefore in later life the monkeys had difficulty building attachments+mating. - The ones separated from their mothers at birth were found to be abusive to other monkeys.
CHALLENGING BOWLBY'S THEORY: Tizard and Hodges-
Found that children who had been brought up in ORPHANAGES with MULTIPLE CARERS, who had NOT had the opportunity to form an attachment before AGE OF 2+half, did form attachments with their permanent carers later on in childhood.
Further Evaluation Of Bowlby's Theory of Attachmen
FAILS TO EXPLAIN;
- Fails to explain why SOME CHILDREN can still FORM RELATIONSHIPS even if they do not have a SECURE ATTACHMENT figure at the critical period.
USEFUL APPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH;
- Mothers are now allowed up to a year on MATERNITY LEAVE in order to BOND with their child (this is important for critical period).
- Makes mothers feel as if they need to GIVE UP/QUIT their job to stay at home with their babies, in order not to affect their childs development and not miss the critical period.
The Learning Theory of Attachment
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING - learning things by associating them with something.
OPERANT CONDITIONING - behaviour is shaped by the consequences.
THE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING MODEL;
FOOD (unconditional stimulus) -> BABY (unconditional response) = LOVE
FOOD (unconditional stimulus)+MOTHER (neutral stimulus) ->BABY (unconditional response)
MOTHER (conditioned stimulus) -> BABY (conditional response).
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING MODEL -
this suggests attachment is formed through babies unconscious association of the mother with FOOD. Food (UCS) naturally elicits feelings of warmth + contentment.
The sight of the mother becomes unconsciously associated with the FOOD until just the sight of the mother alone will produce the feelings of warmth + contentment.
THE OPERANT CONDITIONING MODEL;
this suggests that attachment arises through the process of positive reinforcement (food, nappy changing eat are primary reinforcements).
attachment - CLASSICAL/OPERANT
THE OPERANT CONDITIONING MODEL;
BABY is HUNGRY and uncomfortable
CAREGIVER finds BABY's crying distressful
CAREGIVER picks up the baby and gives it FOOD
BABY feels HAPPY and comfortable
process is repeated
BABY learns that crying RESULTS in FOOD/COMFORT.
positive reinforcement -where something pleasant immediately follows a behaviour.
negative reinforcement -threat of someone unpleasant/preventing something unpleasant
primary reinforcer -something that directly satisfies a need
secondary reinforcer -something that leads to, or can be exchanged for something that directly satisfies a need.
Eye Witness Testimony - Cognitive Interview
Geisleman et al; designed cognitive interview technique, (to be used by police investigators) to improve the accuracy of eye-witness testimony.
4 instuctions for cognitive interviews:
RECREATE THE CONTEXT OF ORIGINAL INCIDENT - (not revisiting the scene of the crime) Trying to recall an image of the setting e.g. weather, lighting, smell ect.
TO REPORT EVERY DETAIL - Report back only information about the event you can remember. (Even if it doesn't seem to have a bearing on the crime).
TO RECALL THE EVENT IN DIFFERENT ORDERS - Describe the event in reverse order, or start with the most memerable apect of the crime + work backward/forewards from there.
TO CHANGE PERSPECTIVES - Attempt to describe the incident from the perspective of other people who were present at the time.