Psychology

HideShow resource information

Definitions of Abnormality

DEVIATION FROM SOCIAL NORMS

- Breaking the unspoken or clear rules society expects and individual to follow

Implicit (unspoken rules) = laughing at a funeral

Explicit (clear rules) = stealing/murder

Weaknesses of definition

  • The role of the context
  • Changes with the times
  • Eccentric (odd) or abnormal behaviour? sometimes deviation from social norms is eccentric than abnormal eg- running a marathon dressed as a cat 
1 of 75

Definitions of Abnormality

FAILURE TO FUNCTION ADEQUATELY 

Being unable to funtion properly in society 

eg- being late for work, not dressing yourself properly not eating/sleeping properly.

Weaknesses -

  • Not the whole picture - some people may give up eating for a hunger strike
  • Eceptions to the rule - eg a student preparing for an exam may not sleep or eat properly due to stress - temory state.
  • Casulty - the inability to cope with the demands of everyday life may lead to a mental disorder rather than the other way around.
2 of 75

Definitions of Abnormality

DEVIATION FROM IDEAL MENTAL HEALTH

Being unable to fulfil the 6 criteria for ideal mental health set out by Jahoda

  • High self esteem / self identity
  • Self actualisation
  • High resistance to stre
  • Be independant
  • Have an accurate sense of relity
  • Ability to love/function at work in interpersonal relationships

WEAKNESSES

Defficulities of self actualisation - considered abnormal if you can't do this.

Benefits of stress

 Some cultures find it abnormal to try and self actualise. 

3 of 75

Models of Abnormality

Biological --- Biological proseses

Behavioural --- learned processes

Psychodynamic --- emotional processes

Cognitive --- thinking processes

4 of 75

Biological explanations of abnormality

'Medical model'

  • Genes - If you have a mental disorder, the higher the chance of your children getting the disorder. 
  • Brain Structure - abormal behaviour may occour if the structure of the brain is damages in some way (injury or infection)
  • Biochemistry - An unballenced level of specific chemicals has been linked to the development of secific mental disorders. Inballenced levels of hormones can lead to a mental disorder eg - high levels of corisol leads to depression.

Evaluation -

  • No blame - implies that the person is not responsible for their abnormal behaviour
  • Stigna - Mental illnesses are something people fear as they don't know how to respond to it
  • Responsibility - people are encouraged to become posi patience.
  • Large amound of research has been carried out and has increased understanding of biological factors.
5 of 75

The cognitive approach

Irrational or negi thoughts can lead to maladaptive behaviour

Polarised Thinking - seeing everything in black and white

Catastrophising - making a mountain out of a molehill 

Over Generalisation - negi conclusions bases on one event (eg men are stupid)

People with irrational thoughts use language in a negi way.

'' Should'' '' Ought ' ''Must''

Which put pressure on the individual to achieve goals.

6 of 75

The cognitive approach

People who are depressed tend to draw illogical conclusions when they evaluate themselves

The Cognitive Triad - '' three types of negi''

(clockwise)

Negi Views on the world - '' everyone is against me.''

Negi views on oneself - '' i'm not good enough''

Negi views on future -  '' i'll never be good enough.''

7 of 75

Evaluation of the cognitive approach

maladaptive thinking was found in many people with disorders.

Has been critised as it suggests that everyone should be self sufficiant. 

Ellis had no sympathy for those with depression as it was considered to him 'an indulgence of self defeating.'' - individual is seen to be responsible 

8 of 75

Pschodynamic explanation

Freud.

The Consious Mind & Unconsious Mind

Assumtions:

Mental disorders develop from unresolved conflcts within the mind 

- early life experianced can lead to abnormality development if left untreated!!

9 of 75

Pschodynamic explanation

The psychosexual stages

  • Oral - pleasure gained from eating/sucking.

problems in later life include smoking/eating disorders

  • Anal - Pleasure from expelling/retaining poo

problems in later life include OCD or untidiness.

  • Phallic - child wishes to have sex with parents

problems in later life leads to sexual disfunction / turning gay

  • Latency - focuses on social development
  • Genital - all conflicts are resolved relationships come from hetrosexual relationships

If conflicts arise in these stages or not properly resolve then psychosexual/behavioural problems may arise. 

10 of 75

Pschodynamic explanation

Freud stated the psyche ( personality) consists of 3 things.

ID - EGO - SUPER EGO

The ID demands imediate pleasure. (see cake...eat it)

Which is then supressed (stopped) by the SUPER EGO

The SUPER EGO acts to protect the EGO from the wishes and ensures the individual behaves appropriately in society.

**** THIS IS ALL HAPPENING UNCONSIOUSLY****

11 of 75

Pschodynamic explanation

DEFENCE MECHANISMS

These protect the EGO from the demands of the SUPER EGO and the ID

  • REPRESSION - Pushing unacceptible disires into your unconsuous so you are unaware of them. eg - A normal person acts in a violent way towards another person
  • PROJECTION - when your own unacceptible faults are asigned to someone else. eg - acusing someone of being angry when you are the angry one.
  • DENIAL - denying to yourself that you are experiancing certain emotions that make you anxious - eg an alcoholic saying that they're not one
  • REGRESSION - repsonding to anxiety in a childish way - a child's parents are splitting up and starts sucking his thumb
  • DISPLACEMENT - Diverting emotins that are towards a person onto someone else as emotions can't be exressed to person concerned - eg a child angry at family so starts bulling
  • SUBLIMATION - diveromg emotions onto something that is socially aceptible - eg playing sports. 
12 of 75

Pschodynamic explanation

EVALUATION

Influential - it is responsible for the manstream practices of psychotherapy

Untestible - unable to test this explanation. 

eg - how to identify id? where is it? how to prove it exists?

Current experiances -  this approach focus' on past experiances and ignores current difficulties

Ethical implications - suggests that parents maybe responsible for abnormalities in chilren - which maybe difficult to accept if parents tried their best.

13 of 75

Behaviorist Explanations

Classical conditioning - ' ana is afraid of heights. Anna will feel sick and dizzy. So when she is on a high building she will make a connection with the feeling of being sick to heights'

Operant conditioning -

Reward will increase appearence of behaviour

Punishment will reduce appearence of behaviour

If a girl has something i want i will hit her then take it. This is a posi refinforcement because if i want something i will use violence to get it.

Social learning theory - we learn behaviour through copying others - BOBO DOLL

14 of 75

Behaviorist Explanations

EVALUATION-

Strengths-

doesn't label people: behavioural model looks at behaviour that is maladaptive, model assumees it can be replaced with adapting learning behaviour

aslong as the behaviour isnt a problem for the person or others, this model says there is no reason to consider the behaviour abnormal 

Weakness -

Concentrates on symptoms of abnormal behaviour, not the cause, supporters of the psychodyamic approach say these symptoms are a sign of deepers underlying problems

15 of 75

Treating Abormality

Biological therapies.

  • chemotherapy / drug therapy
  • ECT
  • Surgery

Biological therapies seek to correct the abormality in the patients brain.

Chemotherapy/drug therapy 

rebalences chemicals within the brain, each category of drugs focus on a different nurotransmitter (are chemicals that send messages between cells)

  • ANTI ANXIETY DRUGS -  calms the patient
  • ANTI DEPRESSANT DRUGS - increase serotonin activity in the brain, imrove mood and increse pysical activity
  • ANTI PSYCHOTIC DRUGS - reduces activity of dopamine and reducing psychotic symtoms 
16 of 75

Treating Abormality

Chemotherey / Drug therapy EVALUATION

EFFICIENCY - drugs have been very effective in treating mental disorders.

SIDE EFFECTS - some drugs have side effect that are worse than the condition they are treating

TREATING THE SYMPTOMS - when drug treatment stop the symtoms often come back, suggesting the drugs are not dealing with the true cause of the problem.

ETHICAL ISSUES - some people argue that drugs are used in some mental institutions to sedate and control patients rather to reduce their suffering.

17 of 75

Treating Abormality

ECT ( ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY)

A Current of 70 - 130 V is passed through the brain for half a second via electrodes on the side of the patients temple. ( which then induces a seizure that lasts around a minute)

How is it thought ECT works? Not clear exactly how it works, but it may increse the availability of nerotransmitters & hormones that improve depression.

 SIDE EFFECTS -  bone fractures, memory loss, cognitive and emotional impairment.

ETHICAL ISSUES - ECT was historically used to control people in mental institutions

ARGUMENTS FOR THE USE OF ECT - quick compaired to drugs and psychological therapies.

18 of 75

Treating Abormality

Psychosurgery.

CLINGULOTOMY - cutting the clingulate guvus connecting the frontal lobes and the limbic system.Using an electrode needle guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

much less invasive than previous methods where G section of the skull was removed and the approprive connection was severed.

EVALUATION -

Controversal treatment - originally introduced to combat overcrowing in mental instituations

ONLY SHOULD BE USED AS A LAST MINUTE MEASURE.

Many pations do not give full informed consent for the treatment, so maybe unethical

BUT it can be very effective in releving the symptoms of anxiety and OCD

19 of 75

Treating Abormality

COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY ( C B T )

  • - Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy ( R E B T )
  • - Beck's 'treatment of negative automatic thoughts'

REBT -

Amied to make irrational thoughts rational AND make negative thoughts positive.

Therapists aim was to challenge clients' thinking and show how irrational their thought are.. the ABC technique.

ABC TECHNIQUE -

  • A: ACTING EVENT - Client records the event that lead to distorted thinking. EG - Exam failure.
  • B: BELIEFS - Client records th negi thoughts associated with the event. EG I'm stupid.
  • C: CONSEQUENCE - client records the negi thoughts/behaviour that follows EG leave college.
20 of 75

Treating Abormality

ABC TECHNIQUE CONTINUED...

Once these stages have been identified by the client they are in a better position to see how irrational they are and can change.

TREATMENT OF AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS - BECK 

Used for depression.

Beck suggests that the cognitive triad (3 types of negi) is how we should deal with it.

1) Client and therapist identify the problem and desired goal.

2) Challenge negi thoughts associated with depression. EG client has to record number of times someone ignores the - maybe surprised on how small the number is.

3) Client moniters how their own thoughts accurately

21 of 75

Treating Abormality

Evaluation of CBT

Strenghts - 

Has been shown to be effective in over 400 studies.

Effective for a wide range of disorders, eg OCD and Depression.

Weaknesses -

Doesn't work for everybody. Especially if the individual can't speak clearly about their thoughts ( schizophrenics)

Can take alot of time and effort.

22 of 75

Treating Abormality

PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES - PSYCHOANALYSIS. FREUD!!!!

- Alowing the indiviatual to uncover conconsious wishes and deeal with them in conscious thought.

Leads to a relaese of the internal conflict a prosess Freud named the ' Catharsis'

DREAM ANALYSIS , FREE ASSOCATION , TRANSFERENCE.

DREAM ANALYSIS - Function of the dream is to alow some wished of the unconsious mind to be considered within the consious self... Repressed memories can also be hidden within dreams.

  • Symbolism within the dream is called DREAM WORK
  • Freud identified two types of dream content:

LATENT CONTENT - The underlying Meaning

MANIFEST CONTENT - the remembered symbols in a dream.

23 of 75

Treating Abormality

FREE ASSOCIATION -

Client is encouraged to allow their thoughts to wander, alowing access to the unconsious mind.

The therapist can look for assosiations and symbols that alow these unconsious thoughts to be dealt with in the consious mind, this alows the cartharis to occour.

TRANSFERENCE.

When feelings are projeceted onto the therapist that are normally felt towards a significant person, eg a parent.

Which alows the client to deal with these repressed thoughts and emotions by outing out scenes from memory. Accesing unconsious thoughts... the therapists can then give insights into the problems within the relationship.

24 of 75

Treating Abormality

EVALUATION -

Expense - time consuming, can take years, only available to those who can afford it.

Types of disorders - suitable for anxiety disorders but not good for schizophrenia.

- research suggests that this is sucessful with mild anxiety disorders but less with serious disorders.

Psychologists suggest that psychotherapy is a waste of time - however the research on which he based this on was found to show a 83% improvement in clients.

Analysist prossesses all the power and the client is expected to accept the analysists view of themself - which can be unpleasent.

Behaviourists belive it is better to cure the behavour than to waste time on finding out about childhood conflicts.

25 of 75

Treating Abormality

BEHAVIOURIST THERAPIES.

  • SYSTEMIC DENSENTIZATION - classical conditioning
  • ADVERSION THERAPY - classical conditioning
  • BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION - operant conditioning.

SYSTEMIC DENSENITIZATION 

1) hierchy of fears - situations of low fear to high hear. eg - saying the word spider (low) to touching a spider (high)

2) relatation training - controlling breathing/muscular tension

3) graduated exposure - 6 - 12 sessions.. client is gradually brought into contact with their phobia object. At each stage patients are encouraged to use their relaxation techniques. Once they are fully relaxed at that level, they will then move onto the next level and so on.. treatment is complete when they are at the top of the heirchy of fear.

26 of 75

Treating Abormality

EVALUATION OF SYSTEMIC DENSENITIZATION 

Research support - research suggests that the ability to tolerate imaginary stressful situations can reduce anxiety when the situation is real.

Alternatives to imagination - in 'vivo' procedures (using real phobic objects) are most effective & long lasting then techniquews using imagry.

Quicket alternatives.. '' flooding'' is faster working, it involves exposing the client to the feared stimulus without graduated exposure - eventually the stress response dies down and the anxiety disapears ( too traumatic for some)

Symptom substituation - psychanalysists argue that a phobia is a smptom of an underlying condition - removing it results the phobia to be relaced by another symptom.

27 of 75

Treating Abormality

ADVERSION THEAPY 

Based upson classical conditioning - aims to rid an individual of an undesireable habbit, EG heavy drinking by paring the habbit with an unpleasent consquence..

Someone who whishes to stop drinking heavily may be given an alcoholic drink which is laced with a neusea inducing substance after a few parings of alcohol and the feeling of sick the person will wish to avoid alcohol.

EVALUATION -

Research evidence - studies show that nausea paired with alcohol can result in condition aversions by there are doubts about the adversion being maintained after the negi pairings have been disconected for any length of time.

combined therapies - therapists who used adversion procedues tend to also use other posi techniques to teach new behaviours to replace those that have been eliminated - offers a window of oppourtunity.

28 of 75

Treating Abormality

BEHAVOUR MODIFICATION

Procedure based on operant conditioning. Aims to change behaviour that is antisocial or maladaptive by reinforcing appropriate behaviour and ignoring inapropriate behaviour

TOKEN ECONOMY - behaviour mod procedure where tokens are given when desireable behaviour is performed. Toens then can be changed for privilages and encourages self care and social skills.

EVALUATION -

  • Research evience - shows effectiveness of token economy in changing behaviour.
  • Institutional bias - claim that whenever appropriate behaviour is imposed by others there is a risk that what is considered desireable is influenced by the needs of the institution rather than the individual.
  • Token learning - warned people with behaviour has been shaed by mods may not behave in the same way when reinforcement has been withdrawn.
29 of 75

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY STRESS

The Pituatiary Adrenal System and the Sympathomeduallary pathway (Cardwell)

STRESSOR - Any stimulus in the enviroment that stimuates a stress response.

HYPTHALAMUS - A small structure at the base of the brain which secretes hormones that stimulate or supress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland. In addition to controlling water ballence, sleep, temp, appetite and blood pressure.

PITUITRY GLAND - Master gland of the body. Located below the brain in the crainial cavity. It is controlled by the hypothalamus. Releases hormones and controls the activity of many other glands in the body.

ADRENAL GLAND - 2 of these located by the kidneys. Made up of the cortex and medualla. Releases  CORTICOSTERIODS. The Meduala releases ADRENALINE AND NORDRENALINE. These hormones have important roles in the bodies response to stress.

ADRENAL CORTEX - part of the adrenal gland. Releases corticosteriods into the blood stream as part of the body's response to stress.

30 of 75

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY STRESS

ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE - ACTH : hormone which is released from the pituiry gland Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteriods as poart of the bodies response to stress.

CORTICOSTERIODS - hormones which are released from the adrenal cortext as part of the stress response.  Contains cortisol & corticosteriods.

AUTOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM - network of nerve pathways which regulate the functioning of bodily systems divided into parasypathetic and sympathetic branches.

ADRENAL MEDULA - part of the adrenal gland under control of the sympathetic nervous system. Releases NORDRENALINE AND ADRENALINE. into thee bloodstream as part of the stress response.

ADRENALINE - Hormone released from the adrenal medua . increses heart rate and blood pressure

31 of 75

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY STRESS

GENERAL ADAPTION SYNDROME (GAS)

3 Stages.

ALARM - threat/stressor is reconised and a reponse is made to the alarm. Adrenaline is produced which leads to the flight/flight activity. There is also activiation of the HPA axis, proucing cortisol.

RESISTANCE - If stress continues it is necessary to find means of coping & resisting collapse. Body is adapting to the demands of the enviroment. Body appears to be coping but in reality, things are deterioating.

EXHAUSTION - eventually the bodys symptoms can no longer maintain normal functioning. Adrenal gland maybe damaged from previous overactivity and the immune system may not be able to cope

result of this maybe seen in stress relatated illnesses such as ulcers, depression and other mental/physical problems.

32 of 75

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY STRESS

GENERAL ADAPTION SYNDROME (GAS) EVALUATION

STRENGTHS -

Model has influenced our understanding of the link between stress and pysical illness.

Selye was the first of emphasise the centeral role of the HPAC and HANSAM pathways

GAS has lead to a vast amount of research.

WEAKNESSES.

GAS ignores individual differences - why is it that someone people are exposed to stressors without stress related illnesses?

Selyes first work was carried out on rats - there are psychological differences between rats & humans... hard to GENERALISE.

33 of 75

BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY STRESS

SELYES GAS STUDY ON RATS

What was injected in the rat appeared less important than the fact the rat was being injected.

After several months of the daily injections the rats began to show a number of physiological symptons - STOMACH ULCERS

whenever an organism is exposed to an unpleasent stimulus as stress and the unpleasent event that lead to the response as a stressor.

CONCLUED that when animals are exposed to an unpleasent stimuli they all react in the same way

34 of 75

Stress and the immune system

Features & functions of the immune system..

Immune system protects out body from foreign agents. Any agent that triggers an immune response is called an ANTIGEN. Which include BACTERIA AND VIRUS'. White blood cells - created in our BONE MARROW and go around our BLOOD STREAM. 2 types of white blood cells. LYMPHOCYTES and PHAGOCYTES.

Different Mechanisms of Immunity.

NON SPECIFIC IMMUNITY -  phagocytes surround and swallow foreign particles whenever they see them

CELL BASES IMMUNITY - lymphocytes ( T CELLS) seek and destroy any cells infected with antigens like virus' and bacteria.

ANTI BODY BASES IMMUNUITY -  B cells destroy antigens before they enter the body's tissue.

35 of 75

Stress and the immune system

EFFECT OF STESS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

INDIRECT EFFECTS - When the pituitary gland releases ACTH as a response to stress the adrenal glands release hormones that slow down immune cell activity.

INFECTION AND DISEASE - stress creates changes in our body that reduce the effectiveness of our immune system. Making it more likely we suffer from illnesses.

36 of 75

Stress and the immune system

KEY STUDY. STRESS&IMMUNE FUNCTION. 

KIECOLT GLASER 1995.

Aim - to show direct effects of stress on the immune system by looking at how fast WOUNDS HEAL.

BRIEF PROCEDURE - volunteer smaple, 13 women aged 47 - 81 who were CARERS, CARING FOR RELATIVES WITH DEMENTIA - were placed in the EXPERIMENTAL GROUP.

ANOTHER 13 WERE MATCHES WITH THE CARERS on the basis of AGE & INCOME but not MARITAL STATUS - CONTROL GROUP

All P's were given a wound - a punch biopsy. All wounds were dressed and treated the same way for EVERYONE.

Measure of immune system was taken - ASSESED LEVELS OF LYTOKINES, then given a 10 item pervieved stress scale to see how stressed they felt. 

37 of 75

Stress and the immune system

STRESS&IMMUNE FUNCTION. KIECOLT GLASER CONTINUED.

FINDINGS - complete wound healing took longer in the carers than in the controll group. 9 DAYS LONGER IN THE CARERS.

Cytokine levels were LOWER in carers than the control group

STRESS SCALE - carers indicated they were more stressed than the control group.

C O N C L U S I O N

cronic stress depreses the functioning of the immune system as wound healing was slower in the individuals that experianced more stress.

Lower levels of Cytokines in cronically stressed individuals supports the view that stress lowers the immune system response directly. 

38 of 75

stress and immune functioning

KIECOLT AND GLASSER 1884

TO see whether the stress of important exams effect the functioning of the immune system.

PROCEDURE:

75 MEDICAL STUDENTS - ( NATURAL EXPERIMENT)

Blood samples were taken:

a) a month before the exams ( low stress)

b) during the exams ( high stress)

Immune function was assessed by measuring T CELL LYMPHOCYTE activity in the blood samples.

Students were also given a questionaire to assess psychological variabes, EG  life events.

39 of 75

stress and immune functioning

KIECOLT AND GLASSER 1984 CONTINUED..

FINDINGS 

T cell activity were reduced in the second blood sample

T cell activity were reduced in P's who reported high levels of stress in the live events

CONCLUSION

Exam stress reduces immune system function, leaves individual vaunerable to infection

40 of 75

stress and immune functioning

Other reaserch..

COHEN ET AL 1993. -Used the viral challenge technique on 400 volunteers

Individuals were given:

1) a common cold virus

2) a questionaire to asses levels of stress an likehood of catching a cold

cohen found a posi correlation between the levels of stress and likehood of catching a cold.

RILEY 1981.

Placed mice on a roatating turntable, within 5 hours their lymphocye count lowered, implanted some mice with cancer cells. After 3 days of being roatated 10 mins out of every hour, mice where more likely to develop tumours than mice in the non stress condition.

41 of 75

Life Changes and Daily Hassles

STRESS - STRESS OCCOURS WHERE PERCIEVED DEMANDS OF A SITUATION ARE GREATER THAN A PERSONS' ABILITY TO COPE.

HOLMES AND RAHE 1967.

SOCIAL READJUSTMENT RATING SCALE - SRRS

Things happen to use to make psychological adjustments. More we have to adjust - more stressful the event is.

H&R made a list of life events they based it on their experiances as clinicans. They asked hundereds of people to rate each event. Rateings were set according to amount of psychological adjustment was needed.

Participents were asked to check off any events they had experianced over 2 years.

42 of 75

Life Changes and Daily Hassles SRRS

2 LEVELS OF STRESS

150+  increses the chances of stress related health problems by 30%

300+ increses chances of stress related health problems by 50%

SRRS FINDINGS

Studies have used the SRRS to link life events to health breakdown.

Significant correlations are often found - however the correlations tend to me fairly sall when things are linked.

SUGGESTS there is a link between stress and health but it isn't a strong link.

43 of 75

Life Changes and Daily Hassles SRRS

HOLMES AND RAHE SRRS EVALUATION

WEAKNESSES -

Self reporting - can be unreliable, eg people forget/don't want to tell people certain things

Individual differences - ratings will differ from person to person. Some people will have XMAS so people would list this on the top of their list. Some people find divorce a releif. CIRCUMSTANCES ARE DIFFERENT FOR EVERYONE.

Posi/Negi life events - some events are posi - eg marriage. SRRS assumes both posi&negi events are stressful --- no evidence to support this.

Casulty - relationship between SRRS SCORE AND HEALTH IS CORRELATIONAL//it is NOT cause and effect.//depression/illness may lead to life problems rather than be caused by them

but it confirmed a relationship between life events and health problems. and SRRS WAS FIRST DETAILED ATTEMPT TO QUANTIFY LEVELS OF STRESS

44 of 75

Life Changes and Daily Hassles SRRS

RAHE ET AL 1970.

Wanted to find out if the scores on the H&R SRRS correlated with the subsequent onset of illness.

2500 MALE AMERICAN S A L O R S did the SRRS to assess how many life events they experianded in the last 6 months. Total score on SRRS was recorded. Over the following 6 months, detailed records were kept of their health. Recorded live scores - were correlated with salors' illnesses

FOUND a posi correlation of +0.118 between life change scores and illness.

CONCLUSION - LCU's were posi correlated with illness scores experiancing life events increses chances of stress related breakdowns, life events can only be a factor contrabuting to illness.

EVALUATION - HARD TO GENERALISE. study focused on MALE SALORS FROM AMERICA.

45 of 75

work place stressors

WORK STRESSOR - Any stimulus in the workplace enviroment that produces the stress response such as work overload or role ambiguity.

WORK OVERLOAD EXAMPLES - too much work, too much marking, too many shifts, long hours, not enough days off.

PHYSICAL ENVIROMENT EXAMPLES - getting up early, too early too cold, space, lighting, temperature.

ROLE AMBIGUITY - requirements for unclear or badly defined contributes to other sourses of stress eg no relations with co workers.

LACK OF CONTROL - other people determing your work load. Mardy, rude customers being told to do things you don't want to do

46 of 75

work place stressors

JOHANSSON ET AL. 1978

Compared two groups of people in a SAWMIL. THE FINISHERS AND CLEANERS.

Finishers:                                      Cleaners

Machine Paced                    |        Self Paced

Isolated                               |         More Socicalising

Repetitive                           |           Different varied work

Highly Skilled                    \             not very skilled

records were ket of stress related illness and absenteeism.

stress hormones secreted by the finishers - ADRENALINE AND NORDRENALINE. on work days they were more secreted. Finishers had higher levels of stress hormones than cleaners.Finishers were absent more often.

47 of 75

work place stressors

JOHANSSON ET AL CONTINUED.

CONCLUSION...

COMBINATION OF WORK STRESSORS(eg high responsibility) and CRONIC LONG TERM PYSICAL AROUSAL = STRESS RELATED ILLNESS AND ABSENTEEISM.

48 of 75

work place stressors

MARMOT ET AL 1997 - The workplace as a source of stress.

To test the job strain model - high demand / low control

7000 CIVIL SERVANTS employees answer a questionaire. Checked for CV disease too. Each one was reassessed after 5 years.

Info recorded:

  • signs of CV disease.
  • presence of conory risk factors
  • employment grade
  • sense of job control

RESULTS - high grade civil servants developed fewest CV problems. LOWER grades expressed weaker sense of job contol and poorest social support CV diseases were partly due to RISK FACORS - EG SMOKING.

conclusion - low control linked to high stress+ CV. High job demand not linked to stress 

49 of 75

work place stressors

MARMOT ET AL 1997 - The workplace as a source of stress. CONTINUED

EVALUATION

People who have low socio economic status are more likely to smoke and live in stressful enviroments and have a poor diet. these things are all likely to contribute to stress and illness.

Biased sample... based on civil servants and not typical adults.

50 of 75

PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT

DRUGS

Benzoaiazephines (BZS) - EG VALIUM

Recude centeral brain arousal by enhansing the actions of GABA, a chemical which has a quietning influence on the brain.

STRENTHS - reduces levels of stress related anxiety

and is found to be more effective for treating social anxiety than anti depressants.

WEAKNESES -

long term use can lead to psychological & psysical dependancy,

the original use for the drug has less effect as your body becomes used to it

and it can cause drowsyness, effect episodic memory.

51 of 75

PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS OF STRESS MANAGEMENT

DRUGS

BETA BLOCKERS - EG INDERAL

Do not enter the brain but reduces activity in the pathways of the nervous system.

STRENTHS

reuces dangerous symptoms like high blood pressure and in low doeses can slow clogging of the ateries.

WEAKNESS

Not suitable for people with breathing problemas as it narrows down the airwairs.

WEAKNESSES FOR BOTH DRUGS - only target symptoms , NOT THE CAUSES - best for short term stress.

52 of 75

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS -

STRES INOCULATION TRAINING.

3 PHASES.

1) CONCEPTUALISATION.

clients are encouraged to relive stressful situations to analyise them. Questions that were encouraged to asked themselves were things such as: what was actually stressful about it, how did they attempt to cope? why wasn't it sucsessful? - in this way clients understand better the demands being made upon them.

2) SKILLS TRAINING AND PRACTICE.

now the key elements of the stresful situation have been identified, clients are taught strategies to cope with them. EG EXAMS - KNOWING THE TOPIC IN DETAIL AND LEARN RELAXING TECHNIQUES.

3) REAL LIFE APPLICATION -Go out in the real world and put the training to the test. contact with therapist is maintained and follow up sessions begins

53 of 75

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS -

EVALUATION OF STRESS INCOCULATION TRAINING

STRENGTHS

Combo of cognitive therapy and behavioural theray makes stress incoculation therapy a powerful method

clients gain clear understanding of their strengths and weaknesses.

WEAKNESSES.

Time, application and money - this can take a long time

changing cognitons and behaviour will always be difficult.

54 of 75

PERSONALITY AND STRESS.

TYPE A BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS/PERSONALITY

TIME PRESSURE:

  • Working against the clock
  • doing several things at once
  • irritation and impatience of others
  • unhapping not doing anything

COMPETITIVE

  • always plays to win games at work

ANGER

  • Self critical
  • hosile to outside work,
  • anger directed inwards.
55 of 75

PERSONALITY AND STRESS.

DEFINITION OF TYPE A PERSONALITY

A sress prone personality characterised by agressive, competitve and hositle attitudes and behaviour.

TYPE B PERSONALITY // BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS

  • Relaxed
  • easy going
  • not competitive
  • low rick of heart attacts and CHD
  • dont get frustrated
56 of 75

PERSONALITY AND STRESS.

FRIEDMAN AND ROSEMAN 1959

3200 MEN BETWEEN AGES 39 AND 59 - TOOK PLACE IN CALIFORNIA

  • using structured interviews, men were categorised as either TYPE A, TYPE X OR TYPE B personality
  • sample was followerd up for 8 and a half years to assess lifestyle & health outcomes

70% OF MEN HAD DEVELOPED CHD (CONORY HEART DISEASE) AND WERE TYPE A PERSONALITIES.

ADVANTAGES OF THIS STUDY -

tracked men who were originally health and developed CHD during this study rather than using less reliable retrospective behaviour

GOOD SAMPLE SIZE - results can be GENERALISED

57 of 75

PERSONALITY AND STRESS.

FRIEDMAN AND ROSENMAN CONTINUED

DISADVANTAGES OF THIS STUDY -

didn't control for all variables that could have effected valunerablility to heart disease

not an experimental study - cause and effect can't be assumed

some studies have shown no relationship between type A behaviour and heart disease.

narrow sample... all middleaged men from california HARD TO GENERALISE

58 of 75

PERSONALITY AND STRESS.

FRIEDMAN'S RESULTS - POSSIBLE EXPLANATIONS.

RISK FACTORS - TYPE A people may do more things that are risk factors... smoking and drinking.

RESPONSE OF CAUSE - TYPE A Behaviour maybe a repsonse to a physiological reactivity rather than a cause of physiological reactivity.TYPE A'S have higher blood pressure when unconsious undergoing surgery than non type A'sType A behaviour maybe a way of coping with higher psysiological activity.

NO CONSISTENCY IN RESEARCH FINDINGS -  some studies suggest that TYPE A men are less prone to CHD than non type A's. The fact NOT ALL type A's sudder from CHD and at least some none type A's do. SUGGESTS THERE ARE OTHER PSYSIOLOGICAL and or psychological factors at work.

TYPE A TRAITS - possible that not all TYPE A's carry equal weight in causing CHD . eg hositility and cyncism maybe more influential than other traits

59 of 75

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS -

HARDINESS TRAINING

THE HARDY PERSONALITY

concept of hardines/hardy personality is centeral to understanding why some people are more valnerable to stress and others are resistant. Number of personality factors that if present provide defences against the negi effects of stress.. which are:

CONTROL - the belief that you have control over your life rather than believng your life is controlled by OUTSIDE INFLUENCES.

COMMITMENT - a sense of involvement in the world around you. involvement with people, jobs, and carreers, the world is seen as something to ENAGE WITH and not stand apart from, have a strong sense of purpose in your attitudes.

CHALLENGE - You see life changed as challenges to be overcome as as oppourtunities rather than seeing them as threats and stressors like not about comfort and security but about change and growth.

60 of 75

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS -

hardy personality..

Kobasa presented evidence suggesting people with high scores on hardiness scales are less likely to suffer stress related illnesses. ALSO identifedother factors involved in the ability to cope with stress which include PSYSICAL EXERSIZE AND SOCIAL SUPPORT.

rated participents on the presense of absence of 3 protected factors - HARDINESS , SOCIAL SUPPORT, REGUALR EXERSIZE.

Kobasa followed the p's andassessed the seriousness of any later psychological problems DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY or pysical illnesses.

Results showed that participents with no protective factors has higher scores on severity of illness scales than other groups.

more protective factors present - lower rates of illness. HARDINESS seemed to have greater impact..

61 of 75

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS -

Hardiness personality evaluation

PARTICIPENTS - most of kobasa's participents were male, white colrar workers - HARD TO GENERALISE.

CONTROL, COMITMENT CHALLENGE - never been clearly defined, unsure which one of the three is most important.

HARDINESS TRAINING.

Kobasa identified a personality type (hardy personality) resistant to stress. Argued that incresing hardiness would be a good stress management techniques. Demonstrates 3 CONTROL COMITMENT AND CHALLENGE.

Focusing - client is taught how to reconise signs of stress such as signs of steess such as muscle tension and increased heart rate.Alows them to reconise stressful situations, therefore identify.

62 of 75

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS -

hardiness training continued.

Reliving Stressful encounters - clients analyise recent stessful situations in terms of how they were actually resolved. ways in which they could have turned out better. And ways in which they could have turned out worse. Gives them more insight into their current coping strategies an how they maybe more effective into their current coping strategies and how they maybe more effective than they imagine.

SELF IMPROVEMENT -centeral to hardiness is the belief that you can cope with lifes challenges, often faced with stressors that can't be easily managed. It is important to reconised and take on challenged that we can cope with, sense of personal control and effectiveness that is fundamental to stress management. AN ESSENTIAL PART OF HARDINESS TRAINING IS TO BEGIN WITH CHALLENGES THAT THE CLIENT CAN COPE WITH BEFORE MOVING ONTO MORE COMPLEX PROBLEMS.

63 of 75

PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS -

Hardiness training CONTINUED.

EVALUATION.

Effectiveness and practibility - there are a few systemic studies on the effectiveness of hardiness training - lenghty and requires comitment and motivation.

Generalizability - kobasa's studies usually involve white middle class males that were businessmen - HARD TO GENERALISE.

Theoretical issues - relative importance of three factors control, comitment and challenge is unclear - although there is evidence for the role of control and comitment in reducing reposnses to stressors.

64 of 75

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

CONFORMITY -

PROCESS OF ' YIELDING' TO MAJORITY INFLUENCE - A CHANGE IN BEHVAVIOUR AS A RESULT OF REAL/IMAGINED GROUP PRESSURE

65 of 75

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

A study of comformity by ASCH 1951

AIM - to see if participents conformed to majority social influence and give wrong answers in a situation where the right answer was ovbs.

PROCEDURE- Seven male students looked at two cards. the 'test' card showed one VERTICAL LINE  followed by 3 vertical lines of different lengths.. participents were asked to call out, IN TURN which one of the three lines was the same line as the test line- the RIGHT ANSWER WAS ALWAYS OVBS.

All participents EXEPCT ONE were acomplices/CONFEDERATES (people who were working with experimenter, know what the aim of the study was) the genuine participent called out his answered last.

acomplices/CONFEDERATES gave wrong answers 12/18 of the trials - the 12 trials were the 'critical' trials 

ASCH USED 50 MALE COLLEGE STUDENTS - GENUINE P'S in the first study.

66 of 75

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

A sudy of conformity by ASCH 1951

FINDINGS -

  • participents conformed to the incorect answer 32%
  • participents conformed at least once 74%
  • participents never conformed 26%

Division of judgement - participents thought their perception of lines must be wrong, so they yieled to the majority view.

CONCLUSION

some people experianced NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE and felt compelled to accept the majority view to avoid rejection. some people experianced INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE pressures and doubted their own judgement.

EVALUATION  - Hard to generalise.. male college students.

out of it's time - done in 1950's america. 

67 of 75

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

FACTORS AFFECTING CONFORMITY/// VARIATIONS OF ASCH'S 1951 STUDY

1) Group of confederates contained one dissenter who agreed with participents & disagreed with the majority. RATE OF CONFORMITY WAS LOWER THAN ASCH'ES 32% because someone is at the side of the participent to ensure the participent is right.

2) the task was made more difficult by using lines that were much closer in length to eachother and the comparison line. RATE OF CONFORMITY WAS HIGHER THAN 32% FOUND BY ASCH. becaue participent won't be sure if its the right answer of not because of how difficult it is. (INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE.

3) participents gave their answers privately rather than calling them out in a group.RATE OF CONFORMITY WAS LOWER THAN 32% FOUND BY ASCH because there was noone to conform to.

4) particiments where meths and science students rather than sociology students. RATE OF CONFORMITY WAS LOWER THAN 32%FOUND MY ASCH as these participents were used to do doing experiments.

68 of 75

types of conformity

COMPLIANCE - publicly conforming to the behaviour / views of others in a group but PRIVATELY MANTAINING YOUR OWN VIEWS.

eg - saying you like a band when you actually don't.

IDENTIFICATION - adopting behaviours / views of a group both publically and privately as you value membership of that group. New attitudes/behaviours are often temory and not maintained when leaving the group. EG - GOING TO WORK, YOU DRESS AND ACT DIFFERENTLY THAN YOU DO WHEN YOU ARE NOT AT WORK.

INTERNALISATION - conversion or true change of private views to match those of the group. DIFFERS FRON IDENTIFICATION BECAUSE THE NEW BEHAVIOURS BECOME A PART OF YOUR VALUE SYSTEM AND IS NOT DEPENDANT ON THE GROUP. eg. a new religion straight edge, ect

69 of 75

Why people conform

NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE -

The desire to be liked.

We conform because we think others will like and accept you.

INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE -

The desire to be right.

We look to others who we belive to be correct to give us info on how to behave particualrly when the situation is unclear.

70 of 75

Obedience studies

MILGRAM 1963

To find out if participents would obey an unjust order from a person in authority to inflict pain on others.

40 MAE VOLUNTEERS were told they were taking part in a study into the role of punishment and learning.

-Particiment was given the teachers role ( always) 

- learning has to memorise pairs of words

If learner made a mistake.. the teacher has to administer a shock.

Shock generatior had 30 levers.. 15 - 450 volts... level was increased when learner made a mistake. Shocks wasn't actually administered to anyone BUT THE PARTICIPENTS WASN'T AWARE OF THIS.

Findings - experiment continued untill 450 volts of until the teacher refused to carry on. 65% went to 450 volts..

71 of 75

Obedience studies

MILGRAM 1963.

Conclusion - most people will obey orders that they don't agree with, in a dominany hierchy people will blindly obey others without feeling any compassion for the suffering they are causing.

EVALUATING THE VALIDITY 

Critisms were made by ORNE AND HOLLAND / O+H

O+H claimed that Milgram's particients were going along with the act when they shocked the learner. argued participents int believe they were giving shocks but they just wanted to please the experimenter and carried on with their role.

MILGRm cited evidence from films made of some of the investigations that showed P's undergoing extreme stress and reffered to evidennce from post experimental interviews and questionaires to support the belief. THAT MAJORITY BELIEVED THEY ARE REALLY ADMINISTERING SHOCKS.

72 of 75

Obedience studies

MILGRAMS STUDIES...

FLAWS IN O+H's argument - doesn't explain why some participents refused to continue giving shocks if they were role playing OR  why alterin the volts - if they were role playing it wouldn't matter and changing the location reduced levels of obediance..

ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY - Which findings from a study can be GENERALISED beyond the context of the investigation. Milgram's study has been replicated... AUSTRALLIA - low levels of obediance. GERMANY high levels of obediance. JORDAN 6-16 year olds found high levels of obediance and 75% believe they were giving real shocks,

This supports milgram's argument that his study was ecologically valid

O+H argued that the situation within a labe bore little resemblemence to real life situations where obediance is required.. results of a sutdy by holfing et al provides support of ecological validity of milgrams findings (THE NURSE WHO GETS A CALL OF A DOCTOR INSTUCTING HER TO GIVE OUT AN UNKNOWN DRUG TO A PATIENT!) suports Milgrams findings as it shows obediance in a different situation.

73 of 75

WHY PEOPLE OBEY

LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY 

We respect people who are seen to hold positions of power and are therefore more likely to obey them. Illustrated in milgram's study by a change of venue from YALE to a less prestigious offices reduced authority in participents eyes - levels of obediance dropped.

GRADUAL COMMITMENT.

when people agree to obey a seemingly unimportant resquest, it makes it more difficult to refuse a subsequent, more serious request. Milgram's study - each shock was only a little bit more than the previous one - gradually sucked into giving more shocks.

AGENCY THEORY

people more from the autonomous state ( acting individually) to seeing themselves as acting on behalf of others, so don't believe they are resonsible for their own actions. Milgrams study- when asked why they went to 450V they said they were only doing what they were told to do.

74 of 75

WHY PEOPLE OBEY

BUFFERS

There are real life situations where a person doesn't see their consiqunese of their obediance to another person. EG bommings.. they can't see the damaged they have caused. THEY WERE BUFFERED FROM IT. Milgram's original experiament - the teachers and learners were in different rooms so the teacher coudn't see the victim. when they were in the same room, obediance levels dropped as there was NO BUFFER.

PERSONALITY FACTORS

Authoritarian personalities have ridid belief systems and are interanant and yet are submissive to people in authoirty - milgram found people with authoriatoarian personalitys tended to give greater shocks.

75 of 75

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »