PSYCHOLOGY

CORE STUDIES SUMMARIES FOR APPROACHES AND RESEARCH METHODS. 

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  • Created by: Emma Osho
  • Created on: 21-01-12 20:43

COGNITIVE APPROACH:

loftus and palmer: the aim was to investigate the interaction between language and memory, experiment, independent measures design. two groups of particpants, first group was  45 students, they had to estimate speed, "How fast were the cars going when they contacted each other?" and each given different verbs. the second group 150 students spilt into 3 groups, one control group other two given sentences, asked to come back a week later and predit whether they had seen broken glass 

Baron - Cohen:the aim of the experiment was to see if high funtioning adults would be impaired on a theory of mind test and prove austic particpants lack theory of mind. three groups of particpants, tourettes, austic, normal. Main task - eyes task (given two words to choose from, concerned, unconcerned?) , the other tasks to check the results were the basic emotion recognition(whole face photograph) and gender recongition. 

Savage - Rumbagh: to the aim was to see whether chipmanzees could accquire language. it was a longitudinal study/case study. Kanzi and Mulika are the pygmy chipmanzees being compared to the common chipmanzees. Lexigrams used, outdoor and indoor envrionment. 

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DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH.

Samuel and Bryant: To investigate the variation in conservation skills within the different ages of children. 252 boys and girls used, split into groups according to age.  e.g 5 years and 3 months. the things investigated where the participants knowledge of mass, number and volume. three conditions: fixed array (no transformation), standard(Piaget original)  and one judgement(one question asked). the dependent variable was the number of errors made, the independent variable was the age groups and the materials used.

Freud:The aim of this study was to provide evidence for Freud's theory on the Oedipus complex. The evidence being the case study on little Hans. Freud only met Hans once, the data was collected by Hans father through conversations with Hans, and observing Hans. e.g a particular conversation with his mother and a dream he had. 

Bandura and Ross: the aim of this study was to prove that if children are exposed to aggressive models they will imitate this behavior, particularly if they identify with the sex of the model. two conditions, non A model and A model. aggressive behaviors reported/recorded: punching, hitting bobo, verbal aggression, aggressive gun play. experiment? controlled observation? 

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INDIVIDUAL APPROACH:

Rosenhan:  the study was based on a hypothesis that psychiatrists cannot reliably tell the difference between sane and insane people. the study consisted of two parts. Field experiment. first part of the study involved 'pseudo patients' the independent variable: was the symptoms of the pseudo patients, the dependent variable whether the patients were admitted and the diagnostic label given. the study involved participant observation, and self report? The secondary study the staff were aware of the previous study, and the independent variable was the false information and the dependent variable was whether they were believed to be pseudo patients or not. 

Thigpen and Cleckley:   the aim of the study was to create an account of the case of eve white. she was referred to Thigpen and Cleckley because of blinding and severe headaches. Case study method which consisted of: interviews and psychometric tests. Qualitative data collected. 

Griffiths:  this studied investigated cognitive bias in gambling behavior. three main hypothesis: reg gamblers would produce more irrational verbalization, be more skilled, Quasi experimental method. independent variable - reg or non reg gambler, thinking aloud participant? dependent variable - the content of utterances, subjective measurements of skill and objective measurements of skill. Mostly male participants* each participant given 3pounds. 30 free gambles, attempted to win this back 

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PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH

Maigure et Al. :   Do London taxi drivers have better spatial awareness because of changes in their posterior hippo campus. (the grey matter) 16 participants all right handed male licensed taxi drivers. compared with 50 normal right handed male participants. This is a Quasi experiment, the independent variable is naturally occurring.. changes in their hippo campus. Correctional analysis was also used because they were investigating between the brain and scans and taxi driver experience. The data was collected using a MRI scanner, objectively. the data was measured through pixel counting, and VBM. 

Dement and Kleitman:  to investigate the relationship between eye movement and dreaming. three hypothesis, e.g there will be a significant association between REM sleep and dreaming. nine participants, studied under controlled lab conditions, asked to avoid caffeine and alcohol. electrodes were attached to the participants face and scalp. >> brain activity, more attached to the eyes >> eye movement. 

Sperry:  To investigate the effects of hemisphere disconnection, showing different sides of the brain have different functions. 11 participants, with split brain. all had a history of advanced epilepsy. Quasi experiment, the indie variable was the disconnection, and the dependent was the performance on tasks. case study method was also used for participant backgrounds. 

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SOCIAL APPROACH:

Milgram:  to investigate the level of obedience would be shown, when an authority figure was present. it was at a prestigious university. Participants deceived into thinking the positions were randomly accolated. The learner and teacher both gave predetermined responses. it was a controlled      observation. participants were debriefed after the experiment. everyone went up to 300 volts, the limit was 450 volts, enough to kill someone. 

Reicher and Haslam:  to create an alternate universe where the researchers could manipulate power, status, groups and resources and see the effects. method was an experimental case study. 15 male participants. 5 guard and ten prisoners. tested on social variables(social identification) organisational variables(compliance with rules) and clinical variables (depression). results divided into rejecting inequality and embracing inequality. 

Pilliavin:  to investigate factors effecting helping behavior. drunk or blind victim, the race of the victim. the speed of helping, the frequency of helping, the race of the helper. it was field experiment. New York subway. Models were used, in both drunk and blind condition. Adjacent area and Critical Area. 

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