1)(a)Outline two assumptions of the cognitive appr
Assumption 1-The human mind can be compared to a computer.
- Both have an input through put and an output
- Information enters the mind via the senses, similar to the way date is inputted to a computer
- They both use existing knowloge to formulate a responce
- However in many ways they aree not alike as we are slower at processing and searching information and we make more mistakes, however we are better at making mental shortcuts.
Assumption 2-Psychology is a science and should be measured in an objective, measurable way.
- Although we cannot 'see' the mind working, we can measure results from experiments in a scientific, objective manner.
- These experiments should be done in controlled lab conditions
- What people say and how they repond to tasks can be taken as valid measurments of their inturnal thought processes
- E.g. Millers STM test -> capasity of human STM is 7+ or -2
1)(b)Describe attribution theory(8)
- The way in which people explain behaviour of others/themselves.
- There are two types of attribution-internal(due to personality) or external(due to situation) e.g.student frogets homework, teacher might attribute to internal (he is lazy) or external factors (something might have happened to it)
- Kelly- we gather info about persons past and how others would act in oder to attribute to internal or external factors. We consider 3 importnat thing when attributing.
Consensus-extent to which there is agreement (low/high),Consistancy-behaving the same way (low/high)Distinctiveness-considering the extent to which the behaviour is unique or usual (low/high)
Internal factors- consensus=low, consistancy=high & distinctiveness=low
External factors- consensus=high, consistancy=high & distinctiveness=high