B F Skinner
Learn through asscociation. For example Pavlovs Dogs.
Food = Response
(unconditioned stimulus = unconditioned response)
Food + Bell = Response
(unconditioned stimulus + Conditioned Stimulus = Uncoditioned Response)
Bell = Response
(conditioned repsonse = conditioned stimulus)
This is based on rewards and punishment. Behaviour is learnt through reinforcement.
Dollard and Miller 1950
- Humans have primary drives and primary reinforcer. For example wanting food and been given it.
- Any behaviour that is rewarded is likely to be repeated. For example behaving = gold star on chart
- Mother can become secondary reinforcer - she is the source of the reward. Primary = Milk. Mum give milk = Secondary
- Mother can attach to infant through classical conditioning
Harlow and Zimmerman 1959
Show attachment is based on comfort more than feeding.
Studied 8 infant rhesus monkeys. Put into isolation and were deprived on their natural mothers.
Two model monkeys were made. One of wire that had the food and the other a soft model purely for comfort.
The amount of time spent with each mother was measured.
Then put a frighting toy into the cage to see what mother the monkeys would cling to.
They went to the soft mother and only went to the wire for feeding.
There is alot more to creating an attachment than just feeding and rewards.
Extrapolation, applying research to humans.
Laboratory experiment, not natural enviroment.
Ignores evidence pointing to evolutionary aspects of attachment
Ethically wrong, monkeys grew up damaged
Social learning theory
Argues that attachment is taught.
Learning theory - learning occurs directly
Social Learning theory - learning occurs in a more indirect way
Hay and Vespo 1988
Used the Social learning theory to explain attachment
-Role modeling 'variety affectionate behaviour'
-Direct Instruction 'Give me a kiss and a cuddle'
-Social Facilitation 'Parents help child carry out behaviours'