PSYCHOLOGY PAPER 3

GENDER BIAS

= DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT OR REPRESENTATION OF MEN AND WOMEN BASED ON STEREOTYPES, RATHER THAN REAL DIFFERENCES

ALPHA BIAS - gender differences are exaggerated to heighten/devalue women

EXAMPLE: WILSON - SEXUAL PROMISCUITY IN MALES GENETIC, WOMEN GOING AGAINST

BETA BIAS - gender differences minimised or ignored. Often occurs when male research is used

EXAMPLE: TAYLOR - FIGHT/FLIGHT 

ANDROCENTRISM - viewing male behaviour as normal and so females are seen as abnormal

EXAMPLE: FREUD'S PENIS ENVY ASSUMES EVERYONE WANTS TO BE MALE

Evaluation:

- Reflexivity means youre taken more seriously.   - Gender bias = misleading info, damaging effects

- Institutional sexism in research process.     - Essentialism. Walker, poltical.    - Worrell, method

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CULTURE BIAS

CULTURE ARE THE VALUES, BELIEFS AND PATTERNS SHARED BY A GROUP

Psychology is dominated by middle class white Americans. Example: Milgram

ETHNOCENTRISM: judging other cultures by the standards and values of ones OWN CULTURE

EXAMPLE STRANGE SITUATION - GERMAN INSECURE AVOIDANT

CULTURAL RELATIVISM: Behaviour can be properly understood only if the cultural context is taken into consideration. Only way norms, morals, values can be meaningful.

BERRY - PSYCHOLOGY HAS BECOME EMIC, IT SHOULD BE ETIC

Evaluation: 

- Distincition between collectivist and individualistic too simple. Eg Takano and Osako

- Some behaviour is universal.   - Unfamiliar, DC  -Operational, behaviour not expresd the same

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FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM

Free will = notion that humans can make own choice, not determined by biological/external

Determinism = individuals behaviour is shaped by internal/external forces, not their will

Hard = free will is impossoble, always caused by factors beyond our control

Soft = behaviour does have a cause but room for manouvre

Environmental = learning through reinforcement

Biological = genetics, neurochemistry

Psychic = childhood

Strength of determinism: scientific approach, nobody would choose to have SZ

Weakness of determinism: unfalsifiable, cause always found even if doesnt exist

Strength of free will: face validity, everyday experiences free will. Roberts mental health

Weakness of free will: neurological evidence - Libet and Soon (pressing button) awareness pre

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NATURE/NURTURE

 BEHAVIOUR IS PRODUCT OF INHERITED OR ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS

NATURE = Early nativists argued that human characteristics are innate, the result of hereditary

Heritability coefficient is used to assess hereditary

NURTURE - Empiricists argued the mind is a blank slate, learning and experience writes

INTERACTIONIST - Nature and nurture interact+influence. Nature creats nurture

EXAMPLE DIATHESIS STRESS MODEL - psychopathology caused by biological vulnerability which is only expressed when coupled with a biological/environemtnal trigger. Eg Tienari

EPIGENETICS - change in genetic ctivity without changing code from lifestyle and events. Leaves epigenit marks which influence next generation

- Determinist and reductionist.              - Constructivism, pick nature to fit nurture. Nickepick

- Nativist issues with linking race/genes and intelligence, empiricists behaviour shaping big brother

- Siblings in same family may not have same upbringing. Differences in MZ. Eg age/divorce

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HOLISM AND REDUCTIONISM

HOLISM = whole is greater than the sum of its parts, breaking it up is inappropriate

REDUCTIONISM = break down behaviour into constituent parts, PARSIMONY!!!

BIOLOGICAL: explain through neurochemical, evolutionary, genetic. All behaviour is biological

ENVIRONMENTAL: breaking up learning into stimulus response links. Mind is a black box

Strength of holism - complete understanding, inc social context. Eg stanford

Weakness of holism - vague and speculative, eg humanism. Combination difficult for therapy

Strength of reductionism - vairables can be broke down and studied precisely

Weakness of reductionism - genetic levels cant account for meaning in social context

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IDIOGRAPHIC AND NOMOTHETIC

IDIOGRAPHIC = everyoe is unique and should be studied scientifically so general laws arent possible. qualitative data!!!!

Eval: Complete understanding and makes individual feel valued but subjective, low generalisability

NOMOTHETIC = focus on similarities and establish laws and generalisations - categorised into classification, principles and dimensions. Quantitative data!

Eval: scientific, large groups and helped psych by developing theories but lab experiments

Working together = idiographic can develop a nomothetic law and both contribute to science

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ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS

Ethical issues arise when there is a CONFLICT BETWEEN VALID RESEARCH AND PRESERVING THE RIGHTS AND DIGNITY OF PARTICIPANTS

Socially sensitive research - social implications for particiapnts or group theyre representing

For example, genetic basis of behaviour

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