Psychology Paper 1

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  • Created on: 09-05-19 11:13


Caregiver- infant interaction-  Reciprocity&Interactional Synchrony. Feldman- from 3 months reciprocity becomes increasingly frequent. Brazleton- Reciprocity is a dance. Meltoff&Moore- Interactional synchrony from 2 weeks, 1/3 facial expression provoked a reaction from baby. Isabella- observed 30 mothers, high levels of interaction synchrony were associated with better quality attachment

Attachment figures- Schaffer&Emerson, first attachment 7 months(usually Mum). Grossman, longitudinal study, fathers don't matter in attachment, however they're good at playing. Field- film 4 month old babies, attachment is about level of responsiveness.

Schaffer and Emerson-  60 babies monthly interval until 18 months Glasgow, middle class families studied in their homes longitudinal. Asocial 3 weeks (same behaviour towwards inanimate objetcs) Indiscriminate 2-7 moths (preference for people(familiar ones) over objects) Specific 7months (65% mother usually the one who interacts the most with). Mulitple (29% formed secondary within a month of forming primary).

Animal studies- Harlow- 16 monkeys, 2 fake Mums, soft, wired and food producer. When scared the monkeys went to soft one. Maternally deprived monkey grew up socially dysfunctional. After 90 days, attachments wouldn't form. Lorenz- Newly attached goslings imprinted on Lorenz. They would then sexually imprint on him too.

Learning theory (explanation)- Dollard and Miller- cupboard love mphasises importance of food from the caregiver. Classical conditioning UCS-=UCR NS+UCS=CR CS=CR. Operant conditioning, crying positively reinforced behaviour but negatively for parent as the crying stops. Attachment becomes a secondary drive through association.

Bowlby's theory (explanation)- Law of continuity- more constant the attachemnt. Law of Accumulation-  all seperation adds up. Social releasers- used to interact with parent. Critical period of 2.5 years. Internal working model

Strange situation- Assessed proximity seeking, exploration stranger axiety and seperation anxiety. Infants showed consistent patterns of attachment. Secure- enthusiastic greeting, general content. Avoidant- avoids reunion, general reduced response. Resistant- resists reunion generally more distressed. Bick et al-good interater reliability 94% agreed

Cultural variations- Van Ijzendoorn 32 meta analysis from 8 countries. Used strange situation. 2000 children. iinsecure resistatant the least common. Wide variation. Jin et al- Korean attachment results same as Japan- due to child rearing techniques. Simonella- attachment rates have changed-36% were insecure avoidant. Change in practise.

Maternal Deprivation- Phsycial separation only leads to deprivation when the child looses emotional care. Deprivation within the critical period causes long term emotional, cognitive damage. Goldfarb- 30 orphaned children to the age of 12. 1/2 had been fostered by 4 months. Fostered group 96 IQ Orphanage group 68 IQ. Bowlby's 44 thieves 14/44 classed affectionless psychopaths. 12 of them had experienced prolonged separation from their mothers. Only 5 out of 30 in the other group had problems with their mothers.

Romanian Orphan studies- Rutter, longitudinal study 165 orphans in Britain. adopted before 6 motnhs IQ 102. 6 months to 2 years 86. Zeanah et al 95 children 12-30 months most of their lives in institutional care. measured agaisnst the strange situation. 74% of control group securely. 19% of institution group securely attached. 64% classified with disorganised attachment

Attachment on relationships- Kerns securely attached= best quality childhood freindships. Insecurely attached= trouble in forming relationships. Myron-Wilson securely attached children less likely to be involved in bullying. McCarthy- securely attached adults have better adult relationships. Hazan and Shaver- secure respondants to the love quiz had better and longer lasting relationships, avoidant responders had a fear of intamacy.

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Coding- Baddeley gave 4 groups different lists of words to remember, acoustically dis/sim semantically dis/sim. LTM bad with semantic similar words, STM bad with acoustic sim words

Capacity- Jacobs- digit span- 9.3 digits and 7.3 letters. Miller- STM 7+/-

Duration- Peterson&Peterson tested 24 undergrads 8 trials to remember a triagram backwards. Students were asked to count backwards to prevent rehersal. STM last 18s. Bahrick et al w/in 15 years 90% accuracy. 48 years 80%

MSM-  Flow between permanent storage system. SR-Very breif duration and high capacity. STM- limited capacity and duration. Transfers by rehersal. LTM- unlimited capacity and duration, creation through maintanence rehersal. -More than one type of rehersal. Passive view of memory.

Types of LTM- Episodic- memory for events in our lives. Semantic- memory or knowledge of the world. Procedural memory how to do things. 

WMM- Baddeley and Hitch. Central executive- co-ordinates slave systems and allocates resources. very limited resources. Phonological loop- auditory information and articulatory process, Visuo-spatial sketchpad- visual information- visual cache and inner scribe. Episodic-integrates processing of slave systems and records orders of events.

Intereference (Explanation for forgetting)- McGeoch and McDonald- looks at the effects of similairty. Retroactive inference by changing similarity between 2 sets of material. Participants had to learn a list a list 100% accuracy, they then learned a new ;ist.

Retrieval failure- Godden and Baddeley- 18 divers, 36 unrelated words. 4 conditions DD DW WW WD. Easier to recall in the same place. Tulving encoding specificity principle- if a cue that has been present in encoding and at retrieval is absent or different, then something will be forgotten.

Misleading information- Gabbert- Post-Event Discussion- each participant watched a video of the same crime but from different angles. Discussion took place. 71% of participants incorrectly recalled aspects of the event. Memory conformity. Loftus and Palmer- leading questions- car accidents. cantacted= 31.8% smashed 40.8%

Anxiety- Yuile and Cutshall- + effect. Witnesses with high level of stress had a better recall. Johnson and Scott- low anxiety group saw a man with a greasy pen 49% recognised the man. High anxiety group saw a man with a bloody knife, 33% recognised the man.

Cognitive- Report everything, Change Perspective, Reinstate Context and Reverse Order. Fisher et al- enhanced cognitive interview- developed additional elements. Interviewer need to keep constant eye contact.

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Social Influence

Types and Explanations- Types- Internalisation, private and public change in behaviour usually perminant. Identification, identifing with a groups attitudes only public change. Compliance, going along with other, superficial change. Explanations- ISI, cognitive process where people want to be right, occurs in ambiguos situations. NSI, behavioural process, desire to behave like others and not be foolish. Usually occurs in unfamiliar settings.

Conformity-Asch's research- 123 american male students each tested individually with 6 confederates. Had to identify the length of a line. 38% gave wrong answer. 'Asch effect' when people conform in an unambigious situation. Variations- Group size (confederates up to 15)- more confederates changed very little. Unanimity (tintroduced a truthful confederate)- allowed particpants to behave more independantly. Task difficulty(task got harder)- conformity increased.

Conformity to social roles- Zimbardo-24 emotionally stable student and randomly assigned them to roles. De-individualisation occured: given numbers not names. It got shut down after 6 days. Prisoners rebelled as guards turned savage. increase in identification= more agressive

Obedience- Milgram- 40 male particpants through news paper ads. Niave asked questions to the learner who is the confederate and if answered wrong teacher gives learner shock. 4 prods "please continue, experiment requires, its essential, you have no choice". No stopped before 300V 65% continued to 450V. Variations- Proximity-Touch, 30%, remote instructions- 20.5%. Location- old run down building 50%. Uniform- normal clothes 20%.

Obedience:Social psychological factors- Agentic state- where we feel no responsibility for our actions and believe we are acting for another person/authroity figure. Frees us from the demands of our conscience. Binding factors- allows individuals to ignore harmful and damaging effects. Legitmacy of authority- we are more likely to obey people who we perceive have authority

Obedience- dispositional explanations- Authoritarian personality: Adorna wanted to understand the Holocaust. Exaggerated respect for authority and submissiveness. Contempt for those superior. Conventional attitudes towards race and gender. Depends on conditional love from childhood. Strict discipline. Loyalty. Used 2000 white american males. Used F-Scale. Tjose who scored highly on the F-Scale were contemptious of the weak and strong. Stereotyped

Resistance to social influence- Social support:conformity is reduce by a decenting peer. Someone who oesn't follow the majority frees others' conscience. Milgrams research showe that independant behaviour increased in the disobediant peer conditons from 35%-90%. Locus of  control: Rooter- internal vs external LoC. Internals- thing that happen are controlled by themselves. Externals- things that happen are controlled by someone else.. Internals have better self confidence and they follow their own beliefs.

Minority influence- Consistency- synchronic and diachronic. Commitment- argumentation principle. Flexibility-adapting their point of view and accepting counter arguments. Moscovici 6 people vied a set of 36 blue-green. Asked to state which were blue or green. 3 group:1)confederates constantly said gree.2)Confederates inconsistant.3)Control. 1)wrong onswer 8% 2) 1.25% 3) 0.25%.

Social influence and social chage- Lessons from minority influence- Civil rights marches. Marches were consistent. Deeper processing. Argumentation pricniple. Snowball effect. Social cryptomnesia- when one has a memory that change happen, but can't remember how. Lessons from conformity research- Asch showed when one confederate gave the right answer, it encourged the others. Environemtnal and political change  exploits NSI- 'bin it-others do'. Obedience research-when there were disobediant models, rate of obedience dropped. Zimbardo-when small instructions are disobeyed, it is difficult to resist a bigger one.

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Deinitions of abnormaliy- Statistical infrequency-less common characteristic e.g depressed or intelligent- Quan. Deviation from social norms- behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in the community- antisocial personality diorder. Deviation form ideal mental health- Jahoda suggested certain characteristics for ideal mental health. Failure to function adequetly- Unable to cope with ordinary demands of day to day living. Rosenham and Seligman suggested characterstics of personal dysfunction.

Psychopathologies- Phobias- Behav- Panic, avoidance, endurance. Emotional- Anxiety, unreasonable response. Cognitive- selective attention, irrational beliefs, cognitive distortions. Depression- Behav- Low energy levels, eating beahviour poor, agression, selfharm. Emotional- anger, lowered mood and self asteem. Cognitive- poor concentration, negative thinking, absolutism. OCD- Behav- Complusions, avoidance. Emotional- Anxiety, guilt, disgust, depression/ Cognitive- Obessions, excessive anxeity.

Behavioural approach to explaining phobias- Mower- 2 process model, phobias are accuired through classical conditioning, maintained by operant conditioning. Watson and Rosoline- lil albert. Generalisation of fear to other stimuli. Treating phobias- Systematic desensitisation-counterconditioning, creating a relaxed state which increases anxiety. Hierarchy, Relaxation, Exposure. Flooding- prolonged exposure to the stimulus- provides maximal opportunity for the phobic stimulus to be extinguihsed.

Cognitive approach to explaining depression- People are prone to depression from faulty informational processing. When people are depressed they think in black white terms. Negative triad- view of self, world and future. Ellis's ABC- Activating event- failing an important test. Belief-negative vents trigger irrational beliefs. Consequences- musturbation, you must always succed, if you fail, you will get depression; kinda. Treating depression- Beck's cognitive therapy- where the therapists works together to form a trusting relationship, they then identify where there may be irrational beliefs and thoughts. Encouraged to record when they felt happy or enjoyed an event= gives evidence that life is good. REBT-adds an D- dispute the irrational beliefs. E- effect. Challenging irrational beliefs through empirical arguments- is there evidence? Logical- does it make sense/.

Biological explanations to OCD- Genetic- Cadidate genes- vulnerable genes that are involved in regulating serotinin systems. Polygenetic- not one single gene- Taylor found 230 genes responsible. Aetiologiclly heterogeneous- genes in one being may cause OCD, same genes in another may not cause OCD. Neural explanations to OCD- Levels of serotonin- low levels results in changes of mood. Abnormal functioning in the frontal lobes whihc is responsible for thinking. Parahippocampal gyrus is associayed with processing unpleasant emotions which functions abnormally in OCD. Treating OCD- SSRI's prevent reabsorption and breakdown of serotonin in the brain. Increase activity in synapses. takes 3-4 months for SSRI's to work. SSRI's and CBT- drugs reduce emotional symptoms such as feeling anxious and depressed. Alternative to SSRI's- Tricyclic- sma effect as SSRI's but just more severe side effects. SNRI's- increases levels of serotonin as well as noradrenaline.

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