COGNITION & DEVELOPMENT Psychology p3

  • Created by: m.prem
  • Created on: 19-11-18 12:44

Piagets theory of cognitive development 1

Maturation 

key to changes in the way children think 

- don't just think differently but also reason differeently 

- not just a matter of learning more 

- question of how knowledge develops 

Schema 

Knowledge of the world stored in a schema 

- cognitive development includes consructions of increasingly detailed schema 

- 'me schema' includes childrens knowledge of themselves

- adults build schem for people, objects and actions 

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Piagets theory of cognitive development 2

Disequilibrium 

  • Creates motivation to learn 
  • if child is unable to make sense of the world then there's an insufficent schema leading to disequilibrium 
  • to gain equilibrium the child has to adapt to the situation & explore and learn

Equilibration 

  • Pleasant state of balance occurs when experiances in the world match out current schema 

Assimilation 

  • New experiances understood within an exisiting schema 
  • takes place when a new experiance doesn't change out understanding of a schema
  • Therefore it's incoorporated into an existing schema 
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Piagets theory of cognitive development 3 (Evaluat

Accomadation 

  • when new experiances require major schema change 
  • this happens when an experiance is very different from a current schema and can't be assimilated
  • involves creating a whole new schema 

EVALUATION

Supporting evidence 

  • Hove et al (1992)
  • 9-12 year olds in groups discuss how objects move down a slope
  • the level of knowledge increases aftere discussion 
  • All children don't reach the same conclusion or the same facts about the movement down the slope 
  • supports idea that children learn through formiing personal mental representations 
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Piagets theory of cognitive development (Evaluatio

Overemphasisation 

  • Disequilibrium + removal of it's associated discomfort = motivation factor
  • However not all children are motivated equally motivated to remove disequilibrium 
  • Studied middle class families who may have been more motivated to learn 
  • Due to role of equilibrium being a central part of equilibrium this weakens the validity 

Underestimation 

  • Teachers are important for setting up discovery situations for children 
  • however some suggest the role of others in learning is more important and central 
  • Vygotsky suggests that learning is a social process and more advanced learning is only possible with help from experts and peers
  • Piagets theory however is limited in the explaination of the cognitive development 
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Piagets stages of intellectual development 1

Four stages 

  • Each stage has a different level of reasoning ability 
  • exact ages vary however all children develop through the same sequence of stages 

Sensorimotor

  • approx 0-2 years
  • babies focus on physical sesnations and the basic coordination between what's seen & body movement 
  • Babies understand that people are objects & gain basic langauage
  • Object permenance is understanding objects still exist when they're not in sight. By 8 months the child will switch their attention away from the object when out of sight. After 8 months they continue to look 
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Piagets stages of intellectual development 2

Pre operational 

  • 2-7 years approx 

Includes Egocentrism 

  • Three mountains task 
  • Class were shown three model mountains. One with snow, one with a chalet and one with a cross
  • Child finds it difficult to select a picture that isn't their own viewpoint 
  • The view that they have is what they think is the view of everyone 

Includes Class inclusion

  • 5 Dogs & 2 cats 
  • " Are there more dogs than animals"
  • Children under 8 years old said there are more dogs
  • Child can't simultaneously see that a dog comes under the dog class and the animal class 
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Piagets stages of intellectual development 3

Concrete operations 

  • 7-11 years approx 
  • At this age they've mastered conservation & they're improving in egocentrism and class inclusion
  • Only able to reason or operate with physical objects in their presence 

Formal operations 

  • 11+ years approx 
  • Abstract reasoning develops 
  • Children are able to focus on the form of arguement and not be distracted by it's contents 
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Piagets stages of intellectual development (Evalua

EVALUATION 

Class inclusions is questionable 

  • Siegler & Sketina (2006)
  • When 5 year olds recieved feeback that pointed out sbsets, they developed an understanding of class inclusion
  • This contradicts Piaget's beliefs that class inclusion can't occur until they've reached necessary intellectual development at 7 years old.
  • Questions validity 

Under & overestimation 

  • Underestimates what young children can do 
  • Overestimates potentially the other abilities such as achieveing formal operations 
  • There's evidence that with practice children can achieve logical thinking earlier than expected
  • Challenges basic principles of theory for example the stages may not be universal or that progression may not be due to maturation 
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Piagets stages of intellectual development (Evalua

Intellectual development is a single process 

  • Studies of children on the autistic spectrum suggest that intellectual development abilites may be due to children being egocentric & with normal reasoning and language skills 
  • Supports domain specific not domain general view of intellectual development 
  • Therefore the basic assumption in Piaget's theory (domain general) may not be valid for all examples of development 
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Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development 1

Stresses role of social processes 

  • V agreed with P that children develop reasoning skills sequentically 
  • but believed the process was mainly dependent on social processes
  • Knowledge is first intermental (knowledge between someone more and someone less expert) & then intramental (within the individual)

Cultural differences 

  • Reasoning abilites are gained thorugh contact with people around us 
  • Cultural differnces are due to everyone growing up and learning about the world surrounded by different cultural beliefs ad values 
  • Children picked up mental 'tools' that are the most important things for life from the world they live in 
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Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development 2

Zone of proximal development (ZPD)

  • Gap between what a child can do alone and what a child is capable of 
  • role of the teacher is to guide the child through the gap as much as the childs ability allows 

Increased skills 

  • Cognitive development wasn't jsut about learning more facts but also becoming more skilled at reasoning 
  • Most advanced reasoning is achieved with the help of experts, not just through exploration 

Scaffolding  

  • Wood et al (1976) suggests a few features of scaffolding 
  • Recruitment = engaging learners intrest
  • Reduction in degress of freedom = focusing learner and getting started 
  • direct maintenance = motivating the learner to persevere 
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Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development 3 (Eval

Progressive scaffolding 

  • Wood et al (1976) identified progressive strategies that can be used to scaffold learning 
  • demonstration 
  • preparation for child 
  • indication of materials 
  • specifc verbal institution 
  • general prompt 

EVALUATION 

Not all individual differences are acknowledged (-ve) 

  • Piaget & Vygotsky assure processes of learning are univeral but not all children can learn effectively in social situations 
  • Personality of learner and style of processing may differ depending on the child, to explain their cognitive development 
  • Vygotsky's theory is not very helpful in understanding the learning processes of every child as the idea may not be generalisable 
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Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development 3 (Eval

Progressive scaffolding 

  • Wood et al (1976) identified progressive strategies that can be used to scaffold learning 
  • demonstration 
  • preparation for child 
  • indication of materials 
  • specifc verbal institution 
  • general prompt 

EVALUATION 

Not all individual differences are acknowledged (-ve) 

  • Piaget & Vygotsky assure processes of learning are univeral but not all children can learn effectively in social situations 
  • Personality of learner and style of processing may differ depending on the child, to explain their cognitive development 
  • Vygotsky's theory is not very helpful in understanding the learning processes of every child as the idea may not be generalisable 
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Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development 3 (Eval

Progressive scaffolding 

  • Wood et al (1976) identified progressive strategies that can be used to scaffold learning 
  • demonstration 
  • preparation for child 
  • indication of materials 
  • specifc verbal institution 
  • general prompt 

EVALUATION 

Not all individual differences are acknowledged (-ve) 

  • Piaget & Vygotsky assure processes of learning are univeral but not all children can learn effectively in social situations 
  • Personality of learner and style of processing may differ depending on the child, to explain their cognitive development 
  • Vygotsky's theory is not very helpful in understanding the learning processes of every child as the idea may not be generalisable 
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Baillargeon's explanation of infant abilities 1

Object permenance 

  • B believed it was due to poor motor skills
  • In the sensorimotor stage children believed to have a better developed understanding of the physical world
  • P believed children didn't reach for hidden objects as they didn't understand object permenance 

Violation of expectation (VOE)

  • P underestimated children's abilities due to the methods used
  • VOE compares reactions to an unexpected and expected events
  • Although it allows inferences to be made about the childrens cognitive abilities 
  • Used to investigate children's abilites 

Innate physical reasoning system (PRS)

  • Gives basic world understanding 
  • enables us to learn details of the world more easily 
  • primitive awareness becomes more sophisticated as we learn from experiance 
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Baillargeon's explanation of infant abilities 2

Physical reasoning system

  • Prediposed to attend and learn from impossible events 
  • allows identification of event categories
  • event categories = corresponds to the way an object interacts & we learn them since birth 
  • Innate PRS means that if an impossible event occurs it draws attention

Key study: Baillargeon & Graber (1987)

Procedure

  • 24 children
  • 5-6 months old 
  • shown a rabbit passing a screen with a window
  • Possible condition, tall rabbit is seen and the short rabbit isn't seen 
  • Impossible condition, neither is seen 

Findings

  • Impossible condition = 33.07 seconds 
  • Possible condition = 25.11 seconds 
  • Infants were surprised at the impossible due to their knowledge that the tall one should've been seen 
  • Demonstrates understanding at less than 6 months old 
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Baillargeon's explanation of infant abilities (Eva

EVALUATION 

PRS is a reason why physical reasoning is universal 

  • Hespos & Van Marle (2012) suggest basic physical properties are understood by everyone 
  • If it's an innate behaviour than everyone has it and it's therefore universal, if it wasn't innate there would be cultural differences
  • PRS is therefore innate and well supported 

Hard to judge what an infant understands 

  • Predicts how a baby may behave due to VOE 
  • However might not look at the event for a long time due to it being impossible but because they view it differently
  • Questions validty of VOE for investigating understanding 
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Social cognition: Selmen's level of perspective ta

Domain general vs Domain specific 

  • S disagreed with P's domain general approach 
  • Perspective taking is a seperate development (domain specific) 

Perspective taking & scenarios 

  • Child takes the role of others ina social situation and consider how they feel 
  • Ex. Holly, Her father doesn't want her to climb trees anymore however her friends kitten is stuck in a tree
  • How does Holly, her father and her friend feel if she does or doesn't climb the tree

Stage 0, Egocentrism 

  • Different ages react differently 
  • 3-6 years old 
  • Can't distinguish between their own emotions & others and they can't explain them. 
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Social cognition: Selmen's level of perspective ta

Stage 1, Social informative role taking 

  • 6-8 years old
  • Know the difference between their own view and others view 
  • Can only focus on one at a time

Stage 2, Self reflective role taking 

  • 8-10 years old 
  • Can explain position of another person and their perspective 
  • Can only focus on one at a time 

Stage 3, Mutual role taking 

  • 10-12 years old 
  • Can consider own view point and another persons view point at the same time 

Stage 4, Social conventional system role taking 

  • 12+
  • understanding other peoples view points isn't enough to allow agreements to be reached
  • needed to keep order
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