- Created by: Hamaz
- Created on: 25-04-19 13:05
Structures of memory
- 2 most important stores = brief temporary story (STM) & a permanent store (LTM)
- STM has a limited capacity - it can only take in + process a small number of items
- LTM = memories that have been well understood and practised. Has an unlimited amount of information
- Types of LTM:
- Episodic memory = memory for life events
- Semantic memory = memory for facts
- Procedural memory = memory for skills
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Processes in memory
- Memory = an active process
- 3 key process: Encoding, storage & retrieval
- Encoding = taking new information into memory (input process)
- Storage = process of maintaining information in temporary/permanent memory over time.
- Retrieval = accessing the stored information when you need it. (Output process)
- Ways information can be retrieved:
- Recognition = the information is repeated and the person compares it to what is in their memory
- Cued recall = the person gets a cue - a prompt/reminder of some kind.
- Free recall = the person retrieves the infomation directly from memory
- Memories are formed by repetition - it povides more chances for information to be encoded.
- To build a new memory. the best way is to link the new item to what is understood already.
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Multi store model of memory
- The multi store model of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) proposed that these 2 stores are connected together via a process called rehearsal.
- Sensory memory = a brief store, allowing sensations such as sounds and images to be retained for a moment
- The multi store model states that this new sensory information can only be transferred from sensory to short - term memory if we pay attention to it.
- The serial position curve (Murdock - 1962) - supports the msm
- Results found that words at the start of the list were better remembered than those in the middle = primacy effect
- Words at the end were better remembered too = recency effect
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- People suffering from brain damage display evidence that STM and LTM are separate stores when they lose one but not the other
- Studies do seem to support it, for example Terry's Study seems to suggest the two stores are separate.
- The theory ignores individual differences, not everybody's memory is the same. For example, some may have a larger STM capacity than others. The theory does not explain this.
- The theory places too much emphasis on rehearsal for LTM, but some is remembered without rehearsal for example childhood memories
- The theory is an over simplistic view of the complex memory system, some people argue that the STM has sub-systems to deal with sound and visual information separately.
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