Outline research into institutional aggression. (4
Research into the importational model comes from Harer and Steffensmeier who in a study of 58 US prisons found that patterns of misconduct for particular groups tended to parallel differences outside of prison. For example, black inmates showed significantly higher rates of violent behaviour within prison whereas white inmates shower higher rate of drug and alcohol related misconduct, reflecting behaviour outside of prison. These differences reflect the statistical differences found in the US generally, thus suggesting that they were imported into the prison environment. Alternatively, research into the deprivational model of institutional aggression comes from McCorkle et al who found that overcrowding, a lack of privacy and a lack of meaningful activity all significantly increased interpersonal violence in prisons, supporting the view that aggression is a direct consequence of situational factors that deprive prisoners of normal living standards.