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  • Created on: 28-10-18 10:09

Origins of Psychology

Wundt is known as the father of psychology set up the first lab and believes all internal mental processes are studyied using introspection.

Introspection-the systematic analysis of ones own conscious experiences including all sensations and emotional reactions.

Inference- making asumption on mental processes on onserved behaviour.

Evaluation Theoretical- 

Limitiation = determinist,theory has no free choice or personal responsibilty, someones conscious so we cannot chnage and have no control over.

Strength=Experimentally Reductionist, theory innappropriatly reduces behaviour and isolates variables, experimental studies of mind by breaking conscious awareness of basic thoughts.lead to study of psychology.

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Cognitive Approach

Based on internal processes of private thoughts that are studied scientifically.

The role of schemas- how information is processed. A package of information that helps prepare you for different situtations. Allow us to make a cognitive representations. Developed by prior experience,organise and interpret information,allow us to make short cuts. These can be cognitve bias leading to stereotypes.

Theortical and computer models- Believed that information processing lin the brain works like a computer. Information proccesing model e.g input,process,output helps shw this. It is taken from our senses.

Cognitive neurostudies- Lesion,PET scans and FMRI scans show effects of brain damage on behaviour e.g cocaine and increased aggression. Phineas gage.

Strengths-scientific theory is measurable,pet scans.

Limitation-Over mechanistic, theory simplistic and flawed,differ dramatically,emotions. Unfalsifiable canot be objectiviley tested using iv and dv,schemas do not directy affect behaviour.not accurate.

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Learning approach- behaviourism

Reject all unseen human processes,strictly scientific measures.

Classical conditioning learning by association. Neutral stimulus becomes associated. UCS,UCR,NS,NCR,NS,US,UR,CS,CR.

Pavlov study- dog and level of salvation. The dog associates the bell with the food so they salivate to only the bell. it had become a conditioned stimulus which produced a conditoned response.

Therotical evaluation-Strength= Real life application,principles of lta are put into practice,led to succesful treatments in phobias and addictions.                                                                    Limitation=Environmentally determined,free choice limited by learned,suggest we dont have free choice,question the validity.

Methodological Evaluation-Strength= Scientific,measurable, scientifically measured the dogs behaviour by recording saliva,increases accuracy. Limitation=Low external Validity-findings not successfully genralised to other settings, assumes animals and humans learn in the same way theyre clear differences,question approprianes of findings

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Learning Approach- Social learning theory

Learning by imitation- Bandura learn by imitiating behaviour observed by others.

Mediation- Attention- to be paid by role models. Age or sex you identify.

Retention- observed behaviours memorised.

Motivation- The person will be motivated to reproduce behaviour through indirect reinforcement. Self-efficacy when you think you can do something.

Reproduction-the behaviour is imitated. 

Bandura,ross and ross-Bobo doll experiment. 1st condition one with female experimenter with paper and crayon,then a second experimenter agressive towards bobo doll. 2nd condition same experimenter but did not behave aggresivly. 3rd conditioned controlled envrionment for the children.

Findings- Children who saw agressive behaved agressive. Boys more agressive than girls. Imitiation was greatest with identification e.g same sex.

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Evaluations- of slt and overal behaviourism

SLT- Strengths- Culturally universal. Limitations- Environmentally determined-free choice,Internal validity-hard to measure as intended to hit.Experimenter bias-decided when children had a different situation.External Validity-short term study do not know the long term effects.

Overall Behaviourist Approach-

Strengths-Scientific,Cultarally universal.

Limitiation-Enviornmentally Reductionist-innapropriatly explains behaviour in terms of basic learned,environmental units.

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Biological Approach.

Genotypes-charcateristics that are genetic make ups of our personality e.g eyes,hair colour.

Genotypes in development of Anorexia- MZ twins 100%,DZ twins 50%.- stron evidence to support. Mz=56% concordance,Dz 5% concordance.

Phenotypes in development of Anorexia-Bullying,peer pressure and role models. 56% geno,44% Pheno. 

Phenotypes are important in anorexia,this is because they are ot as great as their genetic similarity.We would expect 100% concordance if just genetics effects it.

Brain scans and schizophrenia- Schizophernia enlarged ventricles 20% bigger. But we do not know if it causes enlarged or enlarge causes schizs so its hard to establish cause and effect.

Neurochemistry- Neurotasnmitter levels can causee mental abnormaltity. Low levels of serotonin=sad as not regulating mood gets stuck in synapse. High=Happy. Depression=low levels. 

Impossible to establish cause and effect this is because seritonin=dep or dep=sertonin.

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Biological approach-evolution and evalutions.

Evolution flight or fight response easy to adapt and help us success- unfalsifiable cannot be objectively tested with iv and dv. Impossible to measure how it has effected behaviour.

Overall Evaluation-

Strenghts-strong research to support it,scientific

Limitations-Biologically reductionist-innapropritley explains behaviour,Biologically determinst- No free choice. 

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The Psychodynamic approach


Role of unconscious- Conscious-thoughts and felings aware of, Preconscious-memories we can access at any time, Unconscious-thought feeling locked away because they are too painful to remember.

Stucture of personality-id,ego,super ego fighting for libido ones abnormal e.g id selfiishness, super ego anxiety. 

Ego defence mechanisms= Repression-hurtful mem pushed out,Denial,prtending issues dont exist,Displacement placing anger onto another object.

Psychosexual stages of development-oral-mouth could lead to smoking

Anal stage-expulsion-overly emotional adult,Retention- neat and thrifty adult.

Phallic stage- Genitals- Fixation lack of father figure leads to homosexuality. penis envy,oedipus complex mother.

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Evaluation of psychodynamic approach

Strengths- strong research to support it, Lil hans odeipus stage,Women forgot details of abuse 38% and 16% forgot but remebered. Pratical applications- familay therapy,sucessfully treat anorexia resolving conflicts.

Limitations- Historically biased-19th century not equality now, Unfalisifiable,iv andv as sexuality cannot be tested for ethical reasons. Mainly women as his research findings cannot be genarilised.

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Humanistic Approach

Should be treated as individuals, Holistacally as a whole person,Idiographic, seeing individual as unique.

Maslow's heirarchy of needs- 5 needs to reach congruence. Pysiological-food,Safety shelter,Love-family,Esteem-confidence and self actualization-full potential.

3 selfs- Self-concept-see yourself,The ideal self-self you want to be,The real self-self you actually are.

Conditons of worth need to be met in order to be loved by others,Meet these worths for congruence.

Conselling psychology-uses postive regard to make someone feel better anout themselves,influnce has grown steadily, essential in therapeutic process.

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Humanistic Approach-evaluations

Strengths-strong suporting research evidence-humanstic therapies improved clients Elliot. Recognises free will. 

Limitation-Unfalsifiable and unscientific,theory cannot be measured subjective experiences uses empericl methods making it unscientific.

Cultarally biased-only in one culture focus on well-being of other.

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Similarities and differences of approaches.

Behavioural and Cognitive- s-scientific and determinist,D-case studies and animal testing

Biological and behavioural-s-scientific,strong research

Biological vs Cognitive-s-scientific,Determinst,D- nature vs nurture.

Psychodynamic vs behavioural-s-srong evidence,D-scientific vs non

Psychodynamic vs cognitive-s-unfalsifiable,D-scientific vs non

Psychodynamic vs biological s-strong evidence D- scientific vs non 

Humanistic vs behavioural-s-effective treatments-D scientific vs non

H vs C-s unfalsifiable-D non scientific vs non 

H vs Bi-s-effective therapies-D-free will vs determinist

H vs P-s-non scientific-D free will vs determinist.

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