- Created by: mhyde68
- Created on: 28-10-18 10:09
Origins of Psychology
Wundt is known as the father of psychology set up the first lab and believes all internal mental processes are studyied using introspection.
Introspection-the systematic analysis of ones own conscious experiences including all sensations and emotional reactions.
Inference- making asumption on mental processes on onserved behaviour.
Limitiation = determinist,theory has no free choice or personal responsibilty, someones conscious so we cannot chnage and have no control over.
Strength=Experimentally Reductionist, theory innappropriatly reduces behaviour and isolates variables, experimental studies of mind by breaking conscious awareness of basic thoughts.lead to study of psychology.
Based on internal processes of private thoughts that are studied scientifically.
The role of schemas- how information is processed. A package of information that helps prepare you for different situtations. Allow us to make a cognitive representations. Developed by prior experience,organise and interpret information,allow us to make short cuts. These can be cognitve bias leading to stereotypes.
Theortical and computer models- Believed that information processing lin the brain works like a computer. Information proccesing model e.g input,process,output helps shw this. It is taken from our senses.
Cognitive neurostudies- Lesion,PET scans and FMRI scans show effects of brain damage on behaviour e.g cocaine and increased aggression. Phineas gage.
Strengths-scientific theory is measurable,pet scans.
Limitation-Over mechanistic, theory simplistic and flawed,differ dramatically,emotions. Unfalsifiable canot be objectiviley tested using iv and dv,schemas do not directy affect behaviour.not accurate.
Learning approach- behaviourism
Reject all unseen human processes,strictly scientific measures.
Classical conditioning learning by association. Neutral stimulus becomes associated. UCS,UCR,NS,NCR,NS,US,UR,CS,CR.
Pavlov study- dog and level of salvation. The dog associates the bell with the food so they salivate to only the bell. it had become a conditioned stimulus which produced a conditoned response.
Therotical evaluation-Strength= Real life application,principles of lta are put into practice,led to succesful treatments in phobias and addictions. Limitation=Environmentally determined,free choice limited by learned,suggest we dont have free choice,question the validity.
Methodological Evaluation-Strength= Scientific,measurable, scientifically measured the dogs behaviour by recording saliva,increases accuracy. Limitation=Low external Validity-findings not successfully genralised to other settings, assumes animals and humans learn in the same way theyre clear differences,question approprianes of findings
Learning Approach- Social learning theory
Learning by imitation- Bandura learn by imitiating behaviour observed by others.
Mediation- Attention- to be paid by role models. Age or sex you identify.
Retention- observed behaviours memorised.
Motivation- The person will be motivated to reproduce behaviour through indirect reinforcement. Self-efficacy when you think you can do something.
Reproduction-the behaviour is imitated.
Bandura,ross and ross-Bobo doll experiment. 1st condition one with female experimenter with paper and crayon,then a second experimenter agressive towards bobo doll. 2nd condition same experimenter but did not behave aggresivly. 3rd conditioned controlled envrionment for the children.
Findings- Children who saw agressive behaved agressive. Boys more agressive than girls. Imitiation was greatest with identification e.g same sex.
Evaluations- of slt and overal behaviourism
SLT- Strengths- Culturally universal. Limitations- Environmentally determined-free choice,Internal validity-hard to measure as intended to hit.Experimenter bias-decided when children had a different situation.External Validity-short term study do not know the long term effects.
Overall Behaviourist Approach-
Limitiation-Enviornmentally Reductionist-innapropriatly explains behaviour in terms of basic learned,environmental units.
Genotypes-charcateristics that are genetic make ups of our personality e.g eyes,hair colour.
Genotypes in development of Anorexia- MZ twins 100%,DZ twins 50%.- stron evidence to support. Mz=56% concordance,Dz 5% concordance.
Phenotypes in development of Anorexia-Bullying,peer pressure and role models. 56% geno,44% Pheno.
Phenotypes are important in anorexia,this is because they are ot as great as their genetic similarity.We would expect 100% concordance if just genetics effects it.
Brain scans and schizophrenia- Schizophernia enlarged ventricles 20% bigger. But we do not know if it causes enlarged or enlarge causes schizs so its hard to establish cause and effect.
Neurochemistry- Neurotasnmitter levels can causee mental abnormaltity. Low levels of serotonin=sad as not regulating mood gets stuck in synapse. High=Happy. Depression=low levels.
Impossible to establish cause and effect this is because seritonin=dep or dep=sertonin.
Biological approach-evolution and evalutions.
Evolution flight or fight response easy to adapt and help us success- unfalsifiable cannot be objectively tested with iv and dv. Impossible to measure how it has effected behaviour.
Strenghts-strong research to support it,scientific
Limitations-Biologically reductionist-innapropritley explains behaviour,Biologically determinst- No free choice.
The Psychodynamic approach
Role of unconscious- Conscious-thoughts and felings aware of, Preconscious-memories we can access at any time, Unconscious-thought feeling locked away because they are too painful to remember.
Stucture of personality-id,ego,super ego fighting for libido ones abnormal e.g id selfiishness, super ego anxiety.
Ego defence mechanisms= Repression-hurtful mem pushed out,Denial,prtending issues dont exist,Displacement placing anger onto another object.
Psychosexual stages of development-oral-mouth could lead to smoking
Anal stage-expulsion-overly emotional adult,Retention- neat and thrifty adult.
Phallic stage- Genitals- Fixation lack of father figure leads to homosexuality. penis envy,oedipus complex mother.
Evaluation of psychodynamic approach
Strengths- strong research to support it, Lil hans odeipus stage,Women forgot details of abuse 38% and 16% forgot but remebered. Pratical applications- familay therapy,sucessfully treat anorexia resolving conflicts.
Limitations- Historically biased-19th century not equality now, Unfalisifiable,iv andv as sexuality cannot be tested for ethical reasons. Mainly women as his research findings cannot be genarilised.
Should be treated as individuals, Holistacally as a whole person,Idiographic, seeing individual as unique.
Maslow's heirarchy of needs- 5 needs to reach congruence. Pysiological-food,Safety shelter,Love-family,Esteem-confidence and self actualization-full potential.
3 selfs- Self-concept-see yourself,The ideal self-self you want to be,The real self-self you actually are.
Conditons of worth need to be met in order to be loved by others,Meet these worths for congruence.
Conselling psychology-uses postive regard to make someone feel better anout themselves,influnce has grown steadily, essential in therapeutic process.
Strengths-strong suporting research evidence-humanstic therapies improved clients Elliot. Recognises free will.
Limitation-Unfalsifiable and unscientific,theory cannot be measured subjective experiences uses empericl methods making it unscientific.
Cultarally biased-only in one culture focus on well-being of other.
Similarities and differences of approaches.
Behavioural and Cognitive- s-scientific and determinist,D-case studies and animal testing
Biological and behavioural-s-scientific,strong research
Biological vs Cognitive-s-scientific,Determinst,D- nature vs nurture.
Psychodynamic vs behavioural-s-srong evidence,D-scientific vs non
Psychodynamic vs cognitive-s-unfalsifiable,D-scientific vs non
Psychodynamic vs biological s-strong evidence D- scientific vs non
Humanistic vs behavioural-s-effective treatments-D scientific vs non
H vs C-s unfalsifiable-D non scientific vs non
H vs Bi-s-effective therapies-D-free will vs determinist
H vs P-s-non scientific-D free will vs determinist.